Sufi orders/Silsila/Tariqa/Path

Sufi Orders and Their Shaykhs

some of the most known sufi orders

Malamatiyya (blame worthy):  The Arabic  word malamatiya means “those who are blamed”, and derives from the word malama (“blame”).This sufi group flourished in Samanid Iran during the 8th century around the 2nd and 3rd centuries AH.According to Ibn al Arabi the Malamatīs are considered as the penultimate Sufis, people whose deep inward piety is concealed not only from the eyes of men but ultimately from themselves, the attachment to the perception of one’s own piety constituting a formidable barrier to genuine cardiac self-realisation


Yasawiya – Sufi orders (turuq) crystallized as institutions beginning around the 6th century AH/ 12th century CE. One of the first orders was the Yasawi order, named after Khwajah Ahmad Yasavi (d. 562 AH/ 1166 AD), from the city of Yasi, The mausoleum of Khwaja Ahmad Yasawi, the founder of the Yasawiyya Sufi order is located in the southern Kazakh city of Turkestan. Built during the reign of Mongolian conqueror Tamerlane (Timur-i Lang) (1370-1405), the construction of the mausoleum spanned almost sixteen years of his rule from 1389 to 1405, with unfinished portions remaining until the present day. Yasawi, a Sufi poet and teacher is credited with the conversion of the Turkish speaking people of Kazakhstan to Islam, and is commonly known as ‘Father of the Turks’. His shrine is a national symbol and one of the most important historical monuments in Kazakhstan, with its image appearing on every Kazakh currency notewhere his tomb is located. Today it is called Turkestan and is situated in Kazakhstan, about a six hour drive northwest from Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan. His shrine is undergoing multi-million dollar renovations, which should be finished by the Fall of 1998, when a commemorative festival and international conference in Turkestan on Khwajah Ahmad is planned. A few generations after Khwajah Ahmad, an important Yasavi shaykh was Isma’il Ata. He was from a village in the vicinity of Tashkent. One of his sayings to his disciples was as follows: “Accept this advice from me: Imagine that the world is a green dome in which there is nothing but God and you, and remember God until the overwhelming theophany (al-tajalli al-qahri) overcomes you and frees you from yourself, and nothing remains but God” (Al-Khani,Hada’iq al-wardiya, p. 109).


Kubrawiya and Oveyssi – The Kubrawiya Sufi Order–originating, like the Yasawiya, in Central Asia– was named after Najm al-Din Kubra (d. 618/1221) (Abu al-Jannab Ahmad ibn ‘Umar ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Khiwaqi al-Khwarazmi), known as the “saint-producing (lit. “sculpting or chiseling”) shaykh” (shaykh-e vali tarash), since a number of his disciples became great shaykhs themselves. Although originally from Khiva, located today in western Uzbekistan, he moved nearby to the capital city, Khwarazm. Shaykh Najm al-Din was killed defending Khwarazm, which was completely destroyed during the Mongol holocaust. Today, his tomb (and here as well is another image of Shaykh Najm al-Din Kubra’s tomb)is in the town of Konya Urgench, which was built in the area of the ruins of Khwarazm. Apparently, he is known there as Kebir Ata. Konya Urgench is located in Turkmenistan and is about an hour’s drive over the border from the city of Nukus in the Karakalpak region of Uzbekistan. (If you intend to visit Shaykh Najm al-Din’s shrine from Uzbekistan, you must have a Turkmen visa–if you are not Uzbek.) 


Qadiriya – The Qadiriya Sufi Order–branches of which are found throughout the Muslim world– was named after’Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (d. 1166 CE). Here you can read Qala’id al-jawahir (Necklaces of Gems)a book length hagiography of ‘Abd al-Qadir written by Muhammad ibn Yahya al-Tadifi al-Hanbali. You can also virtually visit the tomb of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir in Baghdad. The website devoted to Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir Jilani (Link fixed, Dec. 4, 2004) is the most comprehensive site on the web concerning a particular shaykh and his writings. A representative example of the works attributed to Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir is On Removing the Cares of the Heart, which is the seventh discourse in his Futuh al-ghayb (Revelations of the Unseen). Another source for works attributed to him is the website devoted to his discourses. A later Punjabi (Pakistani) Qadiri Sufi Poet was Bulleh Shah (The previous link contains a substantial article on his life and poetry as well as links to a number of his poems in both English and the original Punjabi.) A short paragraphy about him as well as two translated poems can be find at Bulleh Shah. (Link fixed, 22 September 2005.) One of the most significant Qadiri shaykhs in West African was Osman Dan Fodio (from Wikipedia). See Usman dan Fodio and the Sokoto Caliphate (Link fixed 22 September 2005) (a short but useful article from the Library of Congress Country Study of Nigeria). In Northern Nigeria in recent years the Qadiriyya tariqah was continued by Maulana Dr. Sheikh Muhammad al-Nasir Kabara and his successor, Sheikh Qaribullah al-Nasir Kabara. One branch of the Qadiriya in Senegal utilizes drums in their gatherings. Released fully in CD format as Tabala Wolof: Sufi Drumming of Senegal, (Link fixed, Dec. 4, 2004) you can listen here to a brief cut of this Senegalese Qadiriya drumming. (Link fixed, Dec. 4, 2004.)
The Moroccan-based Qadiriya-Butshishiyya, has links to the Shadhiliyah. It is headed by Shaykh Sidi Hamza el Qadiri el Boutchichi and centered in Oujda (Madagh) in the Northeast of Morocco, although numerous zawiyahs exist throughout Morocco. The order is certainly the most significant tariqah in Morocco today and is rapidly expanding. It also has zawiyas and representatives in France, England, Italy, Spain, Canada, Finland, and the United States. Another rich web site on the Qadiriya Boutchichiyya is called The Sufi Way.


Rifa’iya Shaykh Ahmad al-Rifa’i (d. 1182 CE)  is the shaykh from whom the Rifa’i order is derived. In some cases, such as that of Shaykh Taner (noted above), the Rifa’i and Qadiri orders have united. 


MevleviyeRumi and the Mevleviye This comprises links to Rumi’s poetry, discourses, biographical essays, the history of his tarikat (Sufi order), and the Sama. Although many American readers are surprised to hear that Rumi was a devout and committed Muslim, nevertheless his writing is so “Islamic” that his mathnawi was refered to by the great Naqshbandi poet Jami as “the Qur’an in Persian.” (Additions as of 2/28/98)


NaqshbandiyaThe Naqshbandiya, named after Baha al-Din Naqshband (d. 791/1389) (Link fixed 22 September 2005) is a tariqah that is widely active throughout the world today and that even has a strong presence on the Web.  The Naqshbandiya further developed basic Islamic practices and principles into the eleven principles of the Naqshbandi Order. One of Khwajah Baha al-Din’s successors was Khwajah Muhammad-e Parsa. The tomb and mosque of his son, Khwajah Abu Nasr-e Parsa  is in Balkh, in Afghanistan. Another of Khwajah Baha al-Din’s successors was Ya’qub-e Charkhi (d. 1447), whose most significant disciple and successor was Khwajah ‘Ubayd Allah Ahrar (d. 895/1490) .One of the most highly regarded Naqshbandi Shaykhs is Ahmad Sirhindi from Sirhind in India.Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi is also  known as the Mujaddid-e Alf-Thani (Renewer of the Second Millenium)(d. 1034/1624).


Chishtiya Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti (from Chisht or Chesht-e sharif, due East of Herat on the Hari Rud in Afghanistan, although his tomb is in Ajmer, India) is the most well-known of the early saints of the Chistiya order, which is prominent in India and Pakistan and has spread (in various forms) to the West. The first of the Chishti saints was Abu Ishaq Shami Chishti (d. 329/940-41), whose shaykh was a well-known Sufi shaykh, Mimshad (or Mumshadh, after al-Dhahabi in Tarikh al-islam) al-Dinawari (d. 299/911-12) (from Dinawar, which was a city in Iranian Kurdistan northeast of Kermanshah, that was later completely destroyed by Timur). See An Introduction to Sufism, is an article written by a recently deceased shaykh of the Chistiya who had resided for many years in Toronto. Read about Khwaja Moinuddin’s shrine (dargah) at two sites:The Dargah (link fixed 22 Sept. 2005) and Ajmer Sharif; and virtually visit the Dargah of Khwaja Mu’in al-Din in Ajmer, India. Visit also the Shrine of Nizam al-Din Awliya (d. 725/3125), (fixed Sept. 22, 2005) a Sufi shaykh of the Chisti order who is buried in New Delhi, India. One of disciples of Nizam al-Din Awliya was the great Sufi poet Amir Khusraw Dihlawi (d. 725/1325), who was buried at the feet of his master.


Shadhiliya The Shadhiliya Order, named after Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili (d. 656 AH/1258 CE), whose tomb is at Humaythra on Egypt’s Red Sea coast, has branches throughout North Africa and the Arab world. It has also become established in Europe and the United States. One shaykh who has brought the Shadhiliya to the U.S. is Sidi Shaykh Muhammad al-Jamal ar-Rifa’i as-Shadhili whose organization has established the Sidi Muhammad Press website, which contains information about the principles of Sidi Shaykh al-Jamal’s teachings concerning the Shadhili order . The Shadhiliya derives from the tariqat of Abu Madyan Shu’ayb (d. 594 AH/1198 CE), whose tomb is in Tlemcen, Algeria. A recent book, The Way of Abu Madyan, by the scholar Vincent Cornell, provides his biography, a discussion of his teachings, and a number of texts written by Abu Madyan and translated into English along with the original Arabic.  One of Abu Madyan’s disciples was Muhammad ‘Ali Ba-‘Alawi, from whom the ‘Alawiya Order, also known as the Ba’Alawiya Order, derives. See a brief summary of The Way of the Bani Alawiyah – At-Tariqah al-‘Alawiyah. A branch of the ‘Alawi Order is the ‘Attasiyah Order. Their new official website is Attasia Tarikah but only the Arabic is currently functional, the English being under construction. The order is centered in Yemen but also has zawiyas (hospices) in Pakistan, India, and Myanmar. The ‘Alawiya order in the Yemen has recently been studied by the anthropologist, David Buchman. In his article titled The Underground Friends of God and Their Adversaries: A Case Study and Survey of Sufism in Contemporary Yemen, Professor Buchman summarizes the results of his six month period of fieldwork in Yemen. The article was originally published in the journal Yemen Update, vol. 39 (1997), pp. 21-24.


Source (s)

Maintained by Dr.Alan Godlas an associate professor at the university of Georgia.Dr Godlas is a graduate of the University of California – Berkeley. He teaches courses on Islam, Quranic & Hadith Studies, Arabic & Persian, Sufism.

63 Responses to “Sufi orders/Silsila/Tariqa/Path”

  1. Sheikh Muhammad Amin Madni (whose full name is SHEIKH HAFIZ AMIN BIN ABDUL REHMAN and whose parents and grand parents hailed from Pakistan) lived at Madina in Saudi Arabia for sixty years. He was Imam at Masjid An-Noor for thirty years. He came to Pakistan in the late ’80s and lived in Karachi for 12 (twelve) years. Then he migrated to Multan (Madinat-ul-Aulia) around 1995. He resides in the Hujra-381, New Shah Rukn-e-Alam Colony. He is a saint of Idrisi Silsila. This saint has introduced the Idrisi Tareeqah in Pakistan. He has established meeting centres for silent zikr in all cities of Pakistan. He somehow induces the most intense love for the Last Messenger of Allah in his followers. He asks his followers to always remain busy in sending blessings to the Messenger (silent recitation of Darood). The love of the Prophet of Islam is the basis of this silsila.Sheikh Amin is the Great,True & Biggest sufi Saint (Aulia Allah) in this time.
    He Teaches how to contact with ALLAH And HAZRAT MUHAMMAD.

    Sufism is mostly about subjective realities, an understanding of which requires a change of perception — a softening of heart. It is all about heart-to-heart matters and that is why it demands silence. Shaikh Amin provides a link to the sea of God’s Anwaar and Tajalliyaat (special blessings) in the spirit of the Prophet of Islam that can only be experienced first-hand by creating a spiritual affinity with him.
    Idrisia Tareeqa is a spiritual lineage linked to the Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad. This spiritual lineage is famous in Egypt, Sudan and Arabia.



    FATIMAH = ALI IBN ABI TALIB –> al-Hasan (d. 49/699-70)–> al-Hasan –>Abd Allah, al-kaamil, al-mahd –> Idris, the founder of Idrisi dynasty in Fez (d 175/ 791) –> Idris (d. 213/828) –>
    Muhammad (d. 221/836) –> Ali Haydara –> Ahmed Mizwar –> Isa –> Hurma –> Ali –> Abu Bakr

    -> Mashish -> Yamlah -> Muhammad -> Abd al-Jabbar -> Ahmad -> Umar -> Ibrahim -> Abd Allah -> Muhammad -> Ahmad -> Ali -> Muhammad -> Idris -> Ahmad al-Mashishi al-Yamlahi al-Hasani.

    Despite his importance, no substantial study has been devoted to the
    career of Abul Abbas Sidi Ahmed ibn Idriss al-Hassani al-Araichi al-
    Fasi (d. 1252/1837); Ibn Idriss was born into a holy family at Maysur in the district of
    al-`Araich (Larache) on Morocco’s Atlantic coast; the date of his
    birth is given as either Rajah 1173/February-March 1760 or
    1163/1749-50, the latter date supported by Idrissi family tradition.
    He was a descendant through the Imam Idriss b. ‘Abdellah al-Mahd of
    the Sharifian Idrissi dynasty, sometime rulers of Fez (788-974).
    After the usual Quranic studies, Sidi Ahmed went at the age of about
    20 to study at the Qarawiyyin mosque school in Fez. There he studied
    a wide range of subjects under a number of teachers, who included
    Sidi Mohammed at-Tawdi ibn Souda (d. 1209/1794), al-Majidri (or al-
    Mijaydri) al-Shinqiti, Sidi Abul Mahawib Abdelwahhab Tazi (d.
    1198/1783), and Abul Qacem al-Wazir. Other teachers referred to in
    the sources include Abdelkarim Yazghi (d. 1784) and Mohammed Tayyeb
    ibn Kiran (d. 1812). Ibn Kiran was later to teach al-Sanusi. Among
    the texts Ibn Idriss studied were the works of Ibn Hajar al-
    `Asqalani (d. 1499) and the Asanid of Ibn Suda from the latter’s
    period of study in Egypt.
    Ahmad B. Idris, the Moroccan mystic and teacher, is one of the seminal figures of Islam in the nineteenth century. Through his preachings, prayers and litanies, his students and their students, he has exercised an enduring influence that stretches from North Africa east to Malaysia and Indonesia, north to Southern Yugoslavia and Istanbl and south along the East African coast. In North East Africa, his influence was specially profound through such students as Muhammad b. Ali al Sanusi, Muhammad Uthman Al-Mirghani and Ibrahim al-Rashid. Two states of the region, Libya and Somalia, are at least in part of creations of the traditions associated with him. In the Sudan, the brotherhood, the Khatmiyya, established by al-Mirghani continues to play a major role in the politics of divided country.

    (La i laha il lal laho mohammad dur rasool allah fee qulli lamhatin wa nafasin adada ma wasi a il mullah) this is a basic wazif is (Silsila Mohammadia idrisia)

  2. Silsila Idrisia

    ”Muhammad Ameen bin Abd-ur-Rahman” “”Qutab-ul-Aqtaab”” is a Sufi Shaikh. In the past, he spent most of his time in Madina Saudi Arabia, and he is now based in Multan, a city in southern Punjab Pakistan. The number of his followers is in millions. He Resides at Shah Rukn-e-Alam Colony in New Multan(Multan). He belongs to the Idreesia (also spelt Idrissia) order of Sufism which originated in North Africa and the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt) as compared with the Iranian-Indian orders and stems of Sufism which have been traditionally popular in Pakistan. He is The Sheikh of the Time Now for Muslims. Shaikh Ameen’s methods of initiating followers into his Sufi discipline include the Love for God & Love for his Prophet Muhammad through Zikr / Darood Khafi or silent recital. Idrissia is mostly spelled as Idrisia in Modren Western Literature. Imam Ahmad Idrisi [real name Ahmad Ibn Idris Al-Fasi] was the founder of this sufi order. The spiritual authority of Idrisia is mainly deriven through well recorded narration from Imam Idris where he was given Awrad (sufi chantings) by Khidhar (a legenadry personality in Abrahamic Religions) in the presence of Muhammad {SalAllaho Alaihi waSallam}. It is also narrated, in the same spiritual encounter, that Muhammad {SalAllaho Alaihi waSallam} became the Direct Guardian of Idrisi Sufi Tradition. Sheikh Amin Bin Abdurr Rehman attained his spiritual training various Mashiakh (Sufi Masters) including Qadriyya and Naqsh Bandia but settled for an Idrisi Shiekh in Yemen. He spent later part of his youth in Modern Saudia, specifically Hijaz. He migrated to Pakistan after political instability in Saudia in late 1970s. He has a sizeable number of followers.

    Ahmad Bin Idris (Founder of Idrisia)

    Silsila Idrisia derives its name from Hazrat Ahmad bin Idris of Morocco and is widespread in the countries of North Africa. I found it categorised as a branch of Silsila Shaazlia in a book.
    Here are parts of a biography of Hazrat Ahmad bin Idris that I picked from the net:
    Ahmed ibn Idriss al-Hassani al-Araichi al-Fasi; most accounts of him appear by way of a preface lo studies or his pupils. And yet through his teachings, pupils, and family, he was undoubtedly one of the key religious figures of the 19th century Arab Muslim world. Three of his pupils from his immediate circle established major brotherhoods, the Sanussiya, Khatmiya, and Rashidiya, from which stemmed several other orders. Of his descendants one branch established a local dynasty in southern Arabia that survived until 1933 when it was incorporated into the Saudi state.
    Yet Ibn Idriss remains an enigma. That he was very influential is
    beyond doubt; why, is less easy to explain. The explanation must
    lie in his personality; not so much what he taught, but how he
    taught it. That, rather than doctrinal originality, best explains
    the enormous authority he exercised over his students and
    contemporaries and why established scholars so eagerly sought ijazas from him.
    After the usual Quranic studies, Sidi Ahmed went at the age of about 20 to study at the Qarawiyyin mosque school in Fez. There he studied a wide range of subjects under a number of teachers, who included Sidi Mohammed at-Tawdi ibn Souda al-Majidri (or al-Mijaydri) al-Shinqiti, Sidi Abul Mahawib Abdelwahhab Tazi and Abul Qacem al-Wazir. Other teachers referred to in the sources include Abdelkarim Yazghi and Mohammed Tayyeb ibn
    Kiran (d. 1812).
    It was from among the same teachers that Ibn Idriss took his Sufi affiliations; he was initiated into the Khadiriya by al-Tazi and
    into the Nasiriya Shadhiliya by al-Wazir, while al-Shinqiti taught
    him the famous prayer attributed to Sidna Ali ibn Abi Talib, al-Hizb
    Ibn ldriss’ teachings; as regards Sufism, (had) an emphasis on the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) as the way to God. He expounded his own distinctively mystical interpretation of the Quran and hadith. Central to his mysticism was the concept of Tariqa Mohammediya, namely that there was only one “way,” that of the Prophet, who alone could act as intermediary between the seeker and God. Sidi Ahmed
    Akish Damidi reports, He, the teacher (at-ustadh) said, “The leaders of this tariqa took their way through intermediaries (bi-wasita), but I took my tariqa from the Messenger (peace and blessing be upon him), without any intermediary; thus my way is the Mohammediya Ahmediya; its beginning and its end is the Mohammedian light.”

    • can you please send me the whole introduction to silsila idrisia and shaikh amin sahib to be published at

      may Allah Taala give you the reward in this world and the world hereafter.
      aala shah

      i wan to put the same request to all the contributors of comments here. they may however send me content according to their choice.
      it is a great dilemma that i dont find proper people to send me the original content.
      may Allah Taala give us taufeeq to do some thing good for other s and our safe hereafter.

  3. Ibraiz Naeem Says:

    I am not clear what u mean by “crystallization” of Sufi Orders in the third century A.H.

    This blog appears to be written by historians. Maybe we need comments from an insider – someone who has actually walked the path.

    A “Sufi Order” or “Silsila” means a golden chain of sufi saints spanning the entire period from the time of the Prophet (Peace be upon him), till today.

    Furthermore a Silsila has to have been initiated through the blessing and guidance of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) during his lifetime.

    Of these there are four: Naqshbandia, Qadria, Chistia, and Suharwardia. Sufis of these chains routinely get there “noor” or “faiz” from their Shaykhs, as well as directly from Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). The tariqat of these Orders is unambiguous and clear. It has evolved through the centuries and is well established and well documented.

    The other so called chains were not initiated by Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) during his life time. And I have no knowledge of documentation of their curriculum.

  4. Ibraiz Naeem Says:

    If you are interested in the reality of Sufism, may I suggest that u go to YouTube and search for “Naqshbandia Saifi”. This will give you some idea about the sufis of the “Naqshbandia Saifi” Sub-Order in Pakistan. May Allah be your guide.

  5. Ibraiz Naeem Says:

    There is one more very important issue. You need to know the difference between Zikr and Wazifa.

    Whereas Naqshbandia, Qadria, Chistia, and Suharwardia Sufi Orders and all their respective Sub-orders impart Zikr to the Lataif of their murids (disciples).

    Other have only wazifas to offer to their murids.

    This is an UNBELIEVABLY BIG difference !

    A Latifa or (plural Lataif) is a spiritual center of the human soul. The Shaykh tranfers noor directly to these spiritual centers by focussing on them. Thereby transfering the spiritual might of his Lataif onto the murid. Whose Lataif are thereby activated. And then the murid’s soul is awakened to the Zikr of Allah. This is altogether different and superior to the Shakhs who have only Wazifas to offer their Murids.

    Ofcourse wazifas are very powerful because they are the word of Allah. And each Wazifa is associated with diverse spiritual powers.

    However the wazifa is a conscious pious act.

    Whereas Zikr is an act of the soul, which continues even when the disciple sleeps – 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, all their lives.

    May Allah guide you the path of Zikr-e-Khafi. This is the most transcended and powerful form of Zikr introduced first by Hazrat Baha-ud-din Muhammad bin Muhammad al Bukhari, Nakshband. Before him all Zikr was verbalized, now it is all “Khafi” for the entire Nakshbandia Sufi Order.

    • can you please send me the whole introduction to silsila idrisia and shaikh amin sahib to be published at

      may Allah Taala give you the reward in this world and the world hereafter.
      aala shah

      ibraiz sahib i ve made this request to fahad sahib also. please pay attention.

      i wan to put the same request to all the contributors of comments here. they may however send me content according to their choice.
      it is a great dilemma that i dont find proper people to send me the original content.
      may Allah Taala give us taufeeq to do some thing good for other s and our safe hereafter.

  6. Ibraiz Naeem Says:

    May Allah have mercy on us all, and show us all the straight way.

    The Nashbandia Sufi Order has a number of Sub-orders, And their Asbaak (lessons) comprise of focusing noor onto the various Lataif of the human soul.

    The most dynamic of these is the Nakshbandi Saifi Sub-order. This Sub-order is in the name of Hazrat Akhundzada Saif-ur-Rahman (Ataal Allah Hayata). His Aastana-e-Aaliya is situated at Faqirabad, near Lahore, Pakistan.

    The most remarkable fact about Hazrat Saif-ur-Rahman is that in his life-time he has been able to generate five to seven generations of Kamil Shayakhs.

    This means that he trained a disciple till the disciple became a Kamil Wali. Then the disciple trained another to Kamiliat, and so on. So that within this lifetime 7 generations exist. This phenomenon spreading like wild fire in a forest. Except it is not wild fire that he is spreading, it is Noor-e-Muhammadi that is spreading all over Pakistan.

    May Allah and my Shaykh forgive me if I have transgressed my humble station in writing about a subject about which I know very little.

  7. I have some questions about silsila idrisia and inshAllah you can give me some answers.
    Is it so that the Sheikh Amin realy have contact with Allah and do they think that our Prophet PBHU is still alive? Isnt it shirk to follow a sheikh blindly whoever it is and dont the sufi do that? Like putting his sheikh behind or after our Prophet pbhu? I really need some answers and I have personal matters behind my questions. So plz if someone can answer me inshAllah.

    Assalamu aleikum

    • your question is very complicated. it is not as easy to answer it.
      In fact there are different frames of mind. a frame of mind means a set of feelings, thoughts, sensations, observations, conclusions etc. on a wider scale we can make some one understand something when he/she has the same frame of mind we ourselves have.
      when people try to make some one understand some points of religion i feel they are trying in vain. anyway, they do it and sometimes get its fruit. but most of the time the efforts to make someone understand results in greater misunderstandings, oppositions and controversies.
      the people who think it all a shirk are also right. i can understand in what perspective they say so. but the people who say it is not a shirk are also right. i can understand their frame of mind as well. there are evidences in quraan and sunnah for both of them.
      but 99% people end up with a result that the other is wrong.
      if you are confused you may have an ability to understand the truth behind. but you may not have as well.
      try your best and if you cannot understand then do what your family has taught you or what you are convinced to do so far, tolerate the others and avoiding denouncing them.

      there is a great difference in male and female spiritual process even, i fee. if you are female it shall be more difficult for you to understand.
      for example: they talk about lataif……if you dont have them in your body, you cant understand what they talk about. in the same way if you dont have lataif you cant understand what they talk about their purification, zikr and awakening etc.

      Allah is same for all muslims. Ask Allah Taala to show you the right path for you and try to be contented.

  8. Silsila Idrisia, as conveyed to us by Syedi Al-Shaikh Al-Hafiz Amin bin Abdul Rahman, accords finality in spiritual and theological matters, after the word of God, to the Last of the Prophets (Sal-Allahu alaihay wasalam), whose place nobody else can ever take.

    Things of tariqat can never be adequately described in words, but to convey some idea of the consonance of Syedi Amin’s spirituality with Sharia, let me give an example: Those followers of Syedi whose spiritual connection with him is refreshed by a visit to his Mehfil in Multan or a Mehfil held under his direction in any city of the world, get awakened for Salat-i-Fajar without any external clock alarm, etc.

    In fact, at least for a few days after visiting him in Multan, one is transported to a state of profound mental and spiritual peace in which troubles of the world look as petty as they really are, and the only worry is to save oneself from things prohibited in Islam.

    Whereas these are only two examples of the countless internal benefits of this Silsila that can only be experienced first-hand, there are also many external indications of this Silsila’s thoroughly and intensely Islamic orientation:

    ~The Mehfils that I just mentioned are arranged in almost all cities of Pakistan and also in many cities throughout the world, where Darood-i-Ibrahimi’s first part and Surah Ikhlas are daily recited thousands of times on beads.

    ~The basic daily wazaif, included in Ahad (oath), necessary for initiation into the Silsilah, include Ayatal Kursi (three times), La Ilaha Il-Allah (100 times), Sal-Allahu alaihay wasalam (100 times), Allah, Allah (100 times, silently), AstaghfirUllah (100 times) and La Ilaha Il-Allahu Muhammadu Rasul-Allah-e-fi kul-i-lamhatin-wa-nafasin adada ma wasiahu IlmUllah (10 times). The oath, administered either by the Shaikh himself or a person deputed by him, requires of a person not to deliberately stop reciting these wazaif once a day without excuse. In addition, Syedi also emphasizes recitation of Subhan-Allah-i-wa-bi-HamdeHi Subhan-Allah-il-Azeem (100 times each after Fajr and Maghrib prayers or at least 100 times a day).

    ~ Sal-Allahu alaihay wasalam is the most basic wazifa of this Silsila, which the Idrisis are encouraged to recite daily in thousands, hundreds of thousands or if possible (by a special spiritual grace made available to some followers of this Silsila) even in millions or billions; (just imagine how many blessings of God would these people be receiving).

    ~As many as 500 to 1000 people visit Syedi’s place on weekdays and the number multiplies many times on weekends, but care is taken that no disturbance is caused to the neighbours: an internal sound system is used for the lectures and Naats while the loudspeaker is used only for Azan, and the brothers are prohibited from frequenting the neighbourhood or the market in groups. Only in exceptional cases, the visitors are allowed to stay for more than three days.

    ~While the Syedi’s residence at 381-A, Shah Rukn-i-Alam Colony, New Multan has undergone only minor changes during his last 14 years in the city, the adjacent mosque devoted to visitors has developed into a massive 80- to 90-foot tall structure with four huge halls one above the other, where langar (free food) is available three times a day. The ground hall is used for prayers and Mehfils only, while the other halls are also used for eating and sleeping by visitors. Contributions are voluntary (although those who have FELT Syedi Amin would feel fortunate to be given the chance of sacrificing everything in their possession for him).

    ~The guests are advised to stay at the Mosque with the niyat of Aitekaf whenever they visit Syedi.

    ~Brothers are encouraged to keep meeting each other and take special care of those attached with the Silsila.

    ~Women can only meet Syedi’s wife in the physical world, and can maintain only spiritual connection with Syedi through their male relatives. His standard of purdah (veil) can be imagined by the statement he once made that he feels ghairat even if a jooti (open sandal or shoe) of his wife is seen lying somewhere by a brother.

    ~Millions of people are thus benefiting from this Sisila in Pakistan and abroad, despite the fact that Syedi has disallowed advertisements saying that tariqat is not the road to fame. Even this initiative of mine is a personal one out of my love for him, a liberty taken by me at the risk of losing everything worth living for, because he has even disallowed his followers to counter this baseless propaganda against him. But I know that he is so loving he would forgive me. Some senior brothers have requested him for permission to set up an official website of the Silsila at least, which however, has not been granted so far.

    Some ‘religious’ organizations, that are based on Silsilas or branches of those Silsilas that are not as effective as Syedi Amin’s Idrisia, do not like the amazing spread of this Silsila in Pakistan and have started a baseless propaganda campaign against it. The propagandists are taking advantage of Syedi’s dislike of advertisement and also of the fact that Silsila Idrisia, which originated in North Africa, was unknown here in Pakistan before the arrival of Syedi Amin.

    However, despite all this, Syedi Amin’s Silsila Idrisia continues to thrive in Pakistan because of its incredible positive effects on the lives of those attached. The number of those who have taken Ahad has crossed the 10-million mark while regular visitors to Multan number in hundreds of thousands.

  9. salim khan Says:

    Sheikh amin is not a saint of any sufi stem,he is using the name of Idreesia
    The founder of this stem was Imam Ahmed Idrisi about 250 years ago,but sheikh amin stated Idreesia is 700 year old Imam Ahmed Idrisi was the founder of it.It is a clear lie from him when the founder was born 250 years ago how can Idreesia be 700 years old? If sheikh amin was Imam of masque in Saudi Arabia for 30 years? what is the address of that masque what time he was doing Imamat there? Sheikh amin and his followers don’t follow sharia they dance on the streets they hide on donkeys they bark like dogs if you ask them why you doing all that their answer will be
    We are doing all that to get blessing of Allah and Prophet.
    There are many hidden qadyanis in the ranks of sheikh amin who support
    Him financially, sheikh amin had claim of his prophet hood. he has pasted many lies upon Allah and Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) he asks his followers to worship other than Allah. he stated books of hadith are not direct from Prophet but my teaching is direct from Prophet therefore my statements are more dependable then hadith.sheikh amin stated if you look at me you don’t see sheikh amin you see Mohammad,Im Mohammad, Mohammad is sitting in front of you Mohammad is in Multan.
    There are many misled claims and this so-called know more about this qadyani freemason made fitnah do visit youtube links.
    Unfortunately Islamic scholars in Pakistan are not taking this new fitnah seriously they have not taken any step to expose sheikh amin’s cult on public level and a well known religious group in pakistan is being paid by sheikh amin and he is taking full advantage of the ullamas silent .
    In the past some people tried to expose sheikh amin in the media but they were threatened by his followers who mostly are gangsters, drug dealers land mafia

  10. salim khan Says:

    In one of sheikh amin’s speech, he said bhangra(dance) is the sunaat of Rasool Allah.maz Allah.
    He stated Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) use to get displeased to Allah (maz Allah)
    He said all his followers will be forgiven by Allah even they make biggest sins.
    He said universe is under my control (maz allah)
    He stated, Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) use to do the funeral prayers of non-believers even Allah not allowed him to do it but he kept doing it (maz Allah)
    He stated hazrat abu bakar stole his father’s hidden money and the same money was given to Prophet Mohammad (maz allah)
    Sheikh amin, the father of prophet Mohammad (pbuh) was womanizer (maz Allah)
    He said, Allah shall not punish any one because Allah only make people afraid but he will not punish any one all will be forgiven.
    He stated there were 36 messengers came after Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) like mirza qadyani in Pakistan. it is very tricky problem but keep looking for this type person if you find him don’t be hasty to accept him make sure if this person got the qualities of Allah and Prophet then accept him.
    There are so many open kufaria statement, lies, and insults of Prophets and Allah by sheikh amin but still he is not by being challenge by the ullamas in Pakistan. Obviously if the ullamas are not
    Aware of this fitnah then it is different matter but the bitter realty is all the top ullama do have all the informations about sheikh amin and his kufria statements but why they are hesitant to expose him on media and public level? I don’t find the answer for is just the mater of few hours
    If ullama come to the media with his audio speeches as proof and expose him then people will
    Have better understanding about the fitna of sheikh amin lets hope in near future ullama will do realise their duties…
    Sheikh amin ‘followers are so stubborn and ignorant they have no logical explanations of any of the answer you ask they will keep saying no no no the videos on the youtube are fake tempered
    Out of contest and if you ask ok if they can prove your point then they will not give you any proof of it just they will keep saying no no no our sheikh is the best ,you are a propagandist you don’t know any thing about Sufism. a person (sheikh amin) is calling him self a prophet a person who is pasting blunt lies upon Allah and Prophet a person who failed to prove himself follower of sunaat and sharia a person who said it is blessing to bark like dogs a person who ask his followers to eat more sleep long dance on the music a person who said to his followers that if you wives are angry to you make them happy to lick (oral sex) is this you call sufim???

  11. Silsila Idrisia

    ”Muhammad Ameen bin Abd-ur-Rahman” “”Qutab-ul-Aqtaab”” is a Sufi Shaikh. In the past, he spent most of his time in Madina Saudi Arabia, and he is now based in Multan, a city in southern Punjab Pakistan. The number of his followers is in millions. He Resides at Shah Rukn-e-Alam Colony in New Multan(Multan). He belongs to the Idreesia (also spelt Idrissia) order of Sufism which originated in North Africa and the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt) as compared with the Iranian-Indian orders and stems of Sufism which have been traditionally popular in Pakistan. He is The Sheikh of the Time Now for Muslims. Shaikh Ameen’s methods of initiating followers into his Sufi discipline include the Love for God & Love for his Prophet Muhammad through Zikr / Darood Khafi or silent recital. Idrissia is mostly spelled as Idrisia in Modren Western Literature. Imam Ahmad Idrisi [real name Ahmad Ibn Idris Al-Fasi] was the founder of this sufi order. The spiritual authority of Idrisia is mainly deriven through well recorded narration from Imam Idris where he was given Awrad (sufi chantings) by Khidhar (a legenadry personality in Abrahamic Religions) in the presence of Muhammad {SalAllaho Alaihi waSallam}. It is also narrated, in the same spiritual encounter, that Muhammad {SalAllaho Alaihi waSallam} became the Direct Guardian of Idrisi Sufi Tradition. Sheikh Amin Bin Abdurr Rehman attained his spiritual training various Mashiakh (Sufi Masters) including Qadriyya and Naqsh Bandia but settled for an Idrisi Shiekh in Yemen. He spent later part of his youth in Modern Saudia, specifically Hijaz. He migrated to Pakistan after political instability in Saudia in late 1970s. He has a sizeable number of followers.

    Ahmad Bin Idris (Founder of Idrisia)

    Silsila Idrisia derives its name from Hazrat Ahmad bin Idris of Morocco and is widespread in the countries of North Africa. I found it categorised as a branch of Silsila Shaazlia in a book.
    Here are parts of a biography of Hazrat Ahmad bin Idris that I picked from the net:
    Ahmed ibn Idriss al-Hassani al-Araichi al-Fasi; most accounts of him appear by way of a preface lo studies or his pupils. And yet through his teachings, pupils, and family, he was undoubtedly one of the key religious figures of the 19th century Arab Muslim world. Three of his pupils from his immediate circle established major brotherhoods, the Sanussiya, Khatmiya, and Rashidiya, from which stemmed several other orders. Of his descendants one branch established a local dynasty in southern Arabia that survived until 1933 when it was incorporated into the Saudi state.
    Yet Ibn Idriss remains an enigma. That he was very influential is
    beyond doubt; why, is less easy to explain. The explanation must
    lie in his personality; not so much what he taught, but how he
    taught it. That, rather than doctrinal originality, best explains
    the enormous authority he exercised over his students and
    contemporaries and why established scholars so eagerly sought ijazas from him.
    After the usual Quranic studies, Sidi Ahmed went at the age of about 20 to study at the Qarawiyyin mosque school in Fez. There he studied a wide range of subjects under a number of teachers, who included Sidi Mohammed at-Tawdi ibn Souda al-Majidri (or al-Mijaydri) al-Shinqiti, Sidi Abul Mahawib Abdelwahhab Tazi and Abul Qacem al-Wazir. Other teachers referred to in the sources include Abdelkarim Yazghi and Mohammed Tayyeb ibn
    Kiran (d. 1812).
    It was from among the same teachers that Ibn Idriss took his Sufi affiliations; he was initiated into the Khadiriya by al-Tazi and
    into the Nasiriya Shadhiliya by al-Wazir, while al-Shinqiti taught
    him the famous prayer attributed to Sidna Ali ibn Abi Talib, al-Hizb
    Ibn ldriss’ teachings; as regards Sufism, (had) an emphasis on the Prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) as the way to God. He expounded his own distinctively mystical interpretation of the Quran and hadith. Central to his mysticism was the concept of Tariqa Mohammediya, namely that there was only one “way,” that of the Prophet, who alone could act as intermediary between the seeker and God. Sidi Ahmed
    Akish Damidi reports, He, the teacher (at-ustadh) said, “The leaders of this tariqa took their way through intermediaries (bi-wasita), but I took my tariqa from the Messenger (peace and blessing be upon him), without any intermediary; thus my way is the Mohammediya Ahmediya; its beginning and its end is the Mohammedian light.”

  12. salim khan Says:

    i like to have answers of my questions from the followers of sheikh amin.i hope they will answer to the point.
    1. What is the address of the mosque where sheikh amin was imam for 30 years and the pried of him imamat?
    2. Who is the leading figure of silsala idreesia at persent? And where he is from?
    3. sheikh amin has so long hairs 50 inch long is it not allowed for male Muslim in sharia it is not even sunaat a man who dose not follow the sunaat can he be a the biggest walli?
    4. Can any of you tell me if bhangra (dance) is the sunaat of Rasool Allah? If it is not then why sheikh amin said bhangra is sunaat? Is it not a lie of him?
    5. Why dose sheikh amin barks like dogs? Is it the way of Muslims? Is this not the disrespect of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh)
    6. I want to know the mean of some naats (ha sahir Mohammad ki zaat alla?
    7. sheikh ka roop ka zil khuda wo nabi?
    8. sheikh amin said my murids will be forgiven even if they make big sins?
    I hope you will be help me to answer my question.

  13. salim khan Says:

    what is the address of the mosque where sheikh amin was imam?what is the pried of his imamat in that mosque?

  14. salim khan Says:

    sheikh amin is not a muslim he is a qadyani agent.he pasted lies upon Allah and
    aqa ji.keep away from him he is a lair he is a sheetan.

  15. If Shaikh Amin does not believe in the finality of Rasul-Allah’s prophethood and he is like Qadianis, God’s curse (Laanat-Allah) be on me; if Shaikh Amin believes in the finality of Rasul-Allah’s prophethood and he is not like Qadianis, God’s curse (Laanat-Allah) be on the person writing by the name of “salim khan” here.

    Visit this link to see the falsehood of the person called “salim khan” exposed:

  16. Rasul-Allah – Muhammad-u-Rasul-Allah (Sala-Allahu alaihay wasalam)

  17. I say Syedi Shaikh Amin Sahib believes in the finality of Syedna Muhammud-u Rasul-Allah’s prophethood and is not like the Qadianis who do do not believe so, and if “salim khan” thinks otherwise (Nauzu-Billah), I say Laanat-Allah-i-alal kazibeen– this is what I am saying. Burhan

  18. Itnay baray Wali-Allah Syedi Amin k baray men baat karnay ki tamiz nahi in propaganda chalanay walay shaitanon/shaitan k chelon ko or jawab mangtay hen–bay adab bay nasib– isi liay inhen koi jawab do to inhen samajh nahi ata

  19. This is my earnest prayer in this context–Laanat-Allah-i-alal kazibeen–may God’s curse be on the liars/propagandists against Syedi Amin, and may God’s blessings continue to increase on Syedi Amin, his followers and other Muslims in peace with him

  20. zahir khan Says:

    isnt sheikh amin 65 year old?if he was imam masjid in madina city for 30 years then he must have been only 14 year of age when he was made a imam of masjid?
    sheikh amin moved to pakistan in 1988 so he is living in pakistan from last 21 year and before coming to pakistan he was in madina and he was imam in a masjid for 30 years it mean he was made imam masjid in 1958 at the age of 14?amazing?
    sheikh amin is a hanafi and a sufi is it possible wahabi goverment would allow a hanafi /sufi sheikh amin imam of masjid?any ways if he was made imam of masid at the age of 14 then plz let me know the addrees details of that masjid?

  21. zahir khan Says:

    sheikh amin claimed for his prophet hood and his murids call him Allah and sheikh amin said Aqa ji did not follow Allah’s command (maz Allah) for proof see the links thanks.

    shame on sheikh amin and his misled cult.

  22. zahir khan Says:

    sheikh amin called prophet Mohammad (pbuh) magician (maz Allah)

    all the videos are real and it is sheikh amins voice if you say videos are fake then prove it.if not then accept the fact that sheikh amin is not a muslim.

  23. zahir khan Says:

    sheikh amin was never a imam masjid in madina if he was then give the address of
    that masjid which you will not give becoz it is lie.wahabi government dont allow any non wahabi to become a imam masjid and we all know wahabis hate sufis and sheikh amin claim he is a sufi so it is not possible that a sufi man can be made imam masjid in saudia.if he was 30 year imam masjid then then he must have only 12 or 13 year old when he was imam masjid there he is 65 year old he came back to pakistan in1986, 23 years ago he came to pakistan and 23+30=53 it mean 53 years ago he became imam masjid so 65-53=12.he was only 12 year old when he was made imam masjid?isnt it a joke from you peoples.stop misguiding cant cover one lie by telling 100 lies.

    • Syedi Amin was Imam of a mosque in Medina for 20 years before coming to Pakistan in around 1986, his date of birth is in 1941 (Rahmatullah-i-alaih).

      • Burhan is regular defender of sheikh amin and he was aware of the fact that
        Almost on every website it is mentioned that sheikh amin was imam masjid for 30 years.
        He never before said sheikh was imam for 20 years when I caught this blunt lie (30years imam)
        Then he realised oh we cant prove that he was imam masjid for 30 year so why not change in to 20 years.plz visit the links you will find that almost on every link it is stated sheikh amin imam masjid in madina for 30 years http://sufistation.w…/14/#comment-48…dur-rehman.html…amin-madni.html
        now what is garanti that after some time you will say sheikh amin was imam masjid for 10 years?
        Some time idrisi says sheikh amin migarted to pakistan in late 70s and some times in mid 80s
        Why cant you stick to one statement? You keep changing your statements it only because
        You people are trying to cover one lie for that you are total exposed and your lies are not coverable
        Now lets say if sheikh amin was imam masjid in saudia?then you have to accept that sheikh amin was the follower of sheikh najdi wahabi? If he is wahabi then he could be a imam masjid in saudia
        We all know the fact that no sunni or sufi can be imam masjid in saudia then how can sheikh amin be? There must be address of that masjid where he was imam?why don’t you give the address of it?
        And what time he was imam?i am sure you will not give me details.
        Now tell me if bhangra is sunaat Nabi ? tell me pls what you say is it sunaat bhangra dance?
        Just tell me in YES or NO answer my questions in your next post pls.thanks
        waiting for answers.

  24. one more lie but not going to help you or sheikh amin.when you cant prove that sheikh amin was imam masjid for 30 years so now you have make it 20 years
    visit all the links where you peoples have written him imam masjid for 30 years
    even on this webblog it says 30 years.visit the link…dur-rehman.html
    some time sheikh amin was migrated to pakistan in late 70s and some time in mid 80s?stick to one statment why keep changing?

  25. Burhan is regular defender of sheikh amin and he was aware of the fact that
    Almost on every website it is mentioned that sheikh amin was imam masjid for 30 years.
    He never before said sheikh was imam for 20 years when I caught this blunt lie (30years imam)
    Then he realised oh we cant prove that he was imam masjid for 30 year so why not change in to 20 years.plz visit the links you will find that almost on every link it is stated sheikh amin imam masjid in madina for 30 years http://sufistation.w…/14/#comment-48…dur-rehman.html…amin-madni.html
    now what is garanti that after some time you will say sheikh amin was imam masjid for 10 years?
    Some time idrisi says sheikh amin migarted to pakistan in late 70s and some times in mid 80s
    Why cant you stick to one statement? You keep changing your statements it only because
    You people are trying to cover one lie for that you are total exposed and your lies are not coverable
    Now lets say if sheikh amin was imam masjid in saudia?then you have to accept that sheikh amin was the follower of sheikh najdi wahabi? If he is wahabi then he could be a imam masjid in saudia
    We all know the fact that no sunni or sufi can be imam masjid in saudia then how can sheikh amin be? There must be address of that masjid where he was imam?why don’t you give the address of it?
    And what time he was imam?i am sure you will not give me details.
    Now tell me if bhangra is sunaat Nabi ? tell me pls what you say is it sunaat bhangra dance?
    Just tell me in YES or NO answer my questions in your next post pls.

  26. one more lie to cover 1st lie lol

  27. sheikh amin could only be wahabi if he was made imam masjid in saudia?

  28. burhan is a regular defender of sheikh amin and he was aware of the fact that almost every website it is mentioned sheikh amin was a imam in madina for 30 years.but he never before said that sheikh was imam for 20 years?when i caught this blunt lie,then he realised that idrisi cant prove that he was imam for 30 years,so why not change it to 20 years plz visit the links you will find that almost on every link it is stated sheikh amin imam masjid in madina for 30 years http://sufistation.w…/14/#comment-48…dur-rehman.html…amin-madni.html
    but i tell you soon they will make say sheikh was imam for 10 years lol
    what ever u say but mind only wahabis are to be made imam in saudia.but u peoples
    say sheikh amin is not a wahabi he is sufi and hanafi ,ok sir?give me the list of any sufi type person who was made imam masjid in najdi rule?why dont u give me the adrress of that masjid where sheikh amin was imam?trust me friend you cant help sheikh amin by telling lies.sheikh amin is a person who dont have any respect for prophets and who claimed his own prophethood and here u r calling him the biggest waliof all the time?anyways bring the proof that he was imam masjid?

  29. sheikh amin said Allah and Nabi are in his body(maz Allah) his face is like Allah and Nabi (maz Allah) Aqa ji used to make bhangra dance (maz Allah) Aqa ji use to read kafar namaz jinaz Allah would not allow him to do that but Aqa ji ignored Allah’s order and keept reading kafar jinaza (maz Allah) sheikh amin Aqa ji use to be angry with Allah (maz Allah) sheikh amin said the father of Aqa ji was Womanizer (maz Allah)
    sheikh amin said mirza qadyani was a nabi in pakistan and he asked his follwers to look for new Nabi (maz Allah) he said my followers are forgiven if if they make big sins like zina (maz Allah)sheikh amin allowed his murids to fell in love woth the prositutes
    his followers call him ALLAH (maz Allah) he said sheikh abdul qadir jilani never a real person it is just a man made story.ther are many kufar of this man and his followers are so empty minded they dont accept any logic or shariyat they just follow a kafar sheikh amin.they will keep saying sheikh is great he is the best they bark like dogs and danced on streets.if you ask them to bring any reference from quran hadeees if bhangra is sunaat they will not answer it.i hope Allah show them the right path but at the moment they are not following islam.

  30. i like ask all the idrisi that before giving any reply to my post plz kindly bring the reference from quran o hadees that bhangra is the sunaat of Aqa ji?and Aqa ji ignored the order of Allah and read namaz jinaz of kafars?mind kafar and munafiq are not the same your sheikh said Aqa ji kafron ke jinazay perhatay thay Allak on ko assa karnay se rokta bi tha phir bi wo kafron ke jinaz pertay thay (maz Allah)
    pls pls pls bring the answer to the point.

  31. 20 years, 1993 men mera ahad hua tha, us zamanay ka men nay suna hua hay Syedi ki apni zaban-i-mubarak say k wo 20 sal Medina ki us masjid k Imam rahay.

    doosri baton ka jawab islami mehfil par dekho time nahi is waqt

  32. On second thought pata nahi wo Islami Mehfil hay bhi k nahi? Is liay wahan janay ka kehnay ki bajaey yehin jawab naqal kar deta hun:

    Bhangra Punjab men hota hay Arab ki sunnat kaisay ho sakta hay, is liay agar aisi koi baat hui hay to saaf zahir hay k yaqeenan kisi or sayyaq-o-sabaq men, kisi aur paraiy men, kisi or mafhoom men hui ho gi, yeh baat men nay agar khud suni hoti to men kab ka jawab day chuka hota, lekin baghair sunay itna zaroor keh sakta hun k kyun-k mujhay Allah nay Syedi Amin ka batin dikhaya hay jo Allah ki Qasam noor hi noor hay, is liay jo bhi unhon na kaha ho ga wo us sayyaq-o-sabaq men, us paraiy men, us mafhoom men Haq hi ho ga kyun k aamal ka dar-o-madar niyat par hota hay

    Doosri baat men nay us tarah nahi suni jis tarah tum bata rahay ho lekin Aqa Ji ki shan bayan kartay huay, un k mujasim rahmat honay ka bayan kartay huay ghaliban ek bar Abdullah bin Ubay ka waqia bayan kia tha k Aqa Ji nay us ka janaza parrha halan-k wo Munafiq tha Ghazwa-i-Uhud jaisay nazuk moqay se wapis palta tha

    Yeh propaganda chalanay walay sayyaq-o-sabaq se hat kar bat naqal kartay hen –these propagandists quote statements out of context

  33. I took ahad in 1993 and it was in those days that I heard Syedi Amin telling that he had been Imam of a mosque in Medina for 20 years.

    Bhangra is a folk thing of Punjab, Pakistan, how could it be the Sunnat of Arabia? It is obvious that if some statement was made to this effect, it has been made in some other context.

    While explaining how Rasulullah is Mercy (Rahmat) embodified, I think I once heard Shaikh Sahib telling that Aqa Ji offered janaza prayers for Abdullah bin Ubay (despite his being the Munafiq who had turned his back on Muslims at the very difficult time of Ghazwa-i-Uhud).

    The propaganda against Syedi Amin is based on out-of-context statements, so beware of this fitna which has its roots in jealousy, because people with Silsilas or branches of those Silsilas that are not as effective as Idrisia cannot stomach the amazing spread of Silsila Idrisia in Pakistan.

  34. I say that Shaikh Amin Sahib has such a strong faith in the finality of the Prophethood of Muhammad-u-Rasulullah Sal-Allahu alaihay wasalam that he induces that belief in his followers, he has such a strong love for the Prophet that he induces that love in his followers, he has so much respect for the Messenger of Allah that he induces that respect in his followers. These statements are based on my personal experience.
    The person writing by the name of “zahir khan” obviously speaks on the basis of hearsay and statements quoted out of context.
    One of us is lying–I invoke God’s curse on the person lying — whoever is lying.

    Syedi Amin’s Shaikh was a renowned Hanafi scholar and Idrisi Shaikh of Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, Shaikh Muhammad al-Mulla. I happened to see him mentioned on their website–it was called darulhadith.blogspot or something similar.

  35. Syedna Muhammad-u-Rasulullah Sal-Allahu alaihay wasalam

  36. Whoever is the real seeker of truth should get out of the mist of hearsay and go to Multan with a clear heart and see for himself reflected in his heart the God’s blessings surrounding the environment and the radiant personality of the Shaikh for personal first-hand experience of Ultimate Tauheed. A clear heart is like a mirror, and light does not lose its originality even if it is reflected by a million mirrors (on the condition of the heart’s mirror being spotless), neither can the reflected light (Noor) be called the Original Light (God). This is the basis of Sufism–God’s Light being reflected by the Prophet’s heart, reflected in turn by the Shaikh’s heart, and reflected in turn by the Murid’s.

  37. God’s Original Light cannot be called reflected light (Noor) in any personified form (Jibrael, Prophet, Shaikh, Murid); of course the Original Light can be called the Reflected Light (Noor) in its most abstract form, when at the First Level, even before its being reflected by the Angel Gabrael, it is reflected by God Himself–at that level even the Reflected Light (Noor) is God.

  38. To avoid confusion on this most difficult and delicate of topics (which is better felt by the heart than understood by the mind), I think I should have put it this way: the reflected light (Noor) cannot be called God in any personified form, the Reflected Light (Noor) is called God only in its most abstract form (at the First Level where it is God Himself reflecting His Original Light).

  39. By personified, I mean “embodified” here, and by “abstract” I mean Unembodifiable, Transcendent

  40. I have been attached with Sheikh Ameen for a long period. I was told that this man is a true Ashiq of Muhmmad ( Peace be Upon Him). But some time ago, friend of mine told me that on You Tube there are some video clips about you Sheikh. When I listned on You Tube those videos and I compared those videos with CD of Sheikh Ameen which were given to me by his followers, I found that both bear the sound of Sheikh Ameen and clips on You Tube are real. After listening to those, I contacted Sheikh Ameen in Multan. He told me those clips are fake and someone is defaming. While the CDs have the same voice and wording. After knowing Sheikh Ameens lie, I decided this man is a fruad. Then I, Alhamdollilah broke my oath with him. Its true he has been lieing upon Prophet(Peace Be Upon Him) in his CDs. I am thankful to the man who exposed him on Internet. But it is really surprising that Religious Scholars have shut their eyes on this Fitna. It was duty of religious Scholars to condemn and expose this man. . Scholars consisant silance makes us feel that there is something fishy. If they do their religious duty sincerely, many naïve people can be saved from this Fitna.

  41. It is so sad that people like burhan using all the wrong excuses to protect a blasphemer
    But even if they do all their best to protect sheikh amin they will not be ale to defend him
    Because sheikh amin’s speeches are solid proof of his guilt now let me explain the exact
    Wording of sheikh amin ‘s speech where he pasted a clear lie upon Aqa ji (pbuh)
    Bhangra dalna sunaat rasool Allah ha is liye sab idrisi bhangara dala karin
    Bhangra (dance) is the sunaat of Rasool Allah therefore all idrisi must dance.
    Now mr,burhan trying to twist in (sayyaq o sabaq) and if I ask him a lie upon Aqa ji
    Is lie not sayyaq o sabaq the question is if bhangra is sunaat or not? I like to know burhan
    Sahib’s opinion if bhangra is sunnaat or not? I know burhan will not answer in yes or no
    Because he is very well aware of the fact that sheikh amin did paste a lie by saying that bhangra
    (dance) is sunat of Rasool Allah (maz Allah) we all aware of this hadees that whoever pasted lie upon prophet Mohammad (pbuh) he / she is the dog of is very simple to understand
    that bhangra is not the sunaat and sheikh amin is lying.ok mr burhan lets make is easy for you
    tell me what you say if bhangra is sunaat of rasool Allah or it is not sunaat of rasool Allah?plz
    answer me in yes or no.dont hesitate to say yes or no plz do answer me.
    Now I firmly believe that sheikh amin was not imam masjid not even 10.20.or30 years
    Prove me wrong and give me the complete address of that masjid where he was imam there is no harm in providing me the address of that masjid ? will you believe a person who claim he was
    Doctor in a hospital and when you ask him the name and address of the hospital and he don’t give you the address of it? You people have lied that he was imam masjid in madina for 30 or 20 years
    Bring the proof of your claim? I know you are not going to bring the proof and you will not accept
    That it was a lie that he was imam masjid in both the way your lie is exposed.
    Now 2nd speech of sheikh amin where he once again pasted lie upon Aqa ji and Allah sheikh amin
    Said Aqa jikafron ke jinazay pertay thay Allah on ko rokta tha hazrat umar (ra) on ko assa karny se roktay thay.Allah Aqa ji ko kehta tha ke kafron ke jinazay to na ada kia Karin phir bi wo kafron ke jinazay pertay we all know Abdullah bin Ubay was not a kafar he was munafiq and Aqa ji did perfom his funeral and at that time there was not any comand of Allah about this matter when Allah sent a ayat about the matter then Aqa ji (pbuh) never did so.but sheikh amin saying kafron ke jinazay if I ask to give the list of kafars can he give the list of those kafar? Can sheikh amin bring the reference from quran hadees that Aqa ji kept perfoming kafar jinza even Allah stoped Aqa ji from doing it (maz Allah) so it very clear statement of sheikh amin that kafron ke jinazay ada karte thay Allah on ko assa karnay se rokta bi tha sheikh amin is pasting this lie upon Aqa ji And Allah.
    In this statement sheikh amin clearlly saying that Aqa ji did not follow Allah’s order and kept
    Perfoming funeral of nonbeleivers (maz Allah)
    Links of the statement

    plz bring address of the masjid where he was imam
    plz let me know what you say if bhangra is sunaat or not?
    Plz bring the reference from quran hadees that Aqa ji did not follow Allah’s order and kept
    Perfoming funeral of nonbeleivers (maz Allah)
    Plz tell me who was the founder silsala idreesia? And if imam idrisi was the founder of it then why sheikh amin said it is 700 year old when imam idrisi was born only 250 years ago? in this clip sheikh amin saying imam ahmed idrisi is the founder of idreesia and it is 600/700 years old.mind imam ahmed idris was born in 1760 but sheikh amin saying it is 700 years old silsila.i hope to get answrs to the point.

  42. Salman Idrisi Says:

    I was raised and born in Khamis Mushait KSA and was a follower of Wahabi school of thought till i meet Sidi Sarkar back in 1990. I can swear on Allah almighty that Sidi Ge is the greatest Saint of all times.

    The only Fitna is See is yourself Dudes (Zahir/ Ex Idrisi) and I must say that you r up to a cheap propaganda campaign, your comments are childish and totally biased. To be more appropriate “Sumuun Buqmoun La Yerjioon”= “See Shall they see not, hear shall they Hear not”.

    [Answer to Zahir]
    1. Yes Aqa G (SAW) prayed for Mushriqeen and this complements Quran as well.
    “Wa Ma Arsalnaka Ela Rahmatalil ALAMEEN” kindly please define Alameen ??????

    2. on the second objection i am not sure what particular Taleem Sharif are u refering to. Do send me the audio clip at my email address and InshahAllah i will defenatly answer that for u at this forum. Inshah Allah (Alhamdulillah)

    [Comment to “So Called Ex Idrisi”]
    kindly share the audios you think are contradictory at along with your objections. i will definatly answer you InshahAllah (Alhamdulillah)

    For the generic audience allow me to tell you that the above post by SO CALLED “Ex Idrisi and/ or Zahir Khan” are totally based on misleading statments and fake claims. Anyways if he/they think that his/ their claims are based on truth then I suggest one of the following options to them/him.

    1. Let’s have a one to one dialog in person or over a conference call (in presence of the rest of audience ).
    2. Since you claim to be a true believer and a devoted Muslim. So let’s help you perform your religious obligation lets meet in Multan allowing you to ask your questions/ objections directly with Sheikh Sab. I strongly believe if u r on Sira’ate Mustaqeem, Allah (SWT) would glorify you. However, if ur on Khutwatu Shaitan, misery would be your fait.

    For for the rest of audiance, i would suggest not to drive any assumptions based on such commentsas credibility of such sources is questionable (“”Suni Sunai Baat per Yaqeen Nageen Karna Chahiy).

    Further, there are lots of enemies of Ummah such as Qadiyanis etc that never miss any opportunity to promote hatred and division among Muslims. Unfortunately, some of our Muslim brothers are also contributing to their cause. I am not sure which party do these 02 gents (Sahir and Ex-Idrisi) represent.

    Anyways, I would recommend the neutral audience to adapt a senseable approach i.e. visit Multan or a local Zikar Mahfil. You may contact me for any assistance in this context

  43. This propaganda against the Qutbul Aqtab Syedi Amin is fitna. This is the new fiction of these propagandists –“ex-Idrisi” — if this person really was an Idrisi, he may be asked as to which year he took ahad and what was the name of the brother on duty at telephone at the Shaikh’s place in those days.

  44. Anyway, one thing can be said with 100 per cent certainty–this person who calls himself “ex-Idrisi” has never been attached with the Shaikh in the real sense of the word, i.e. he has never had his heart attached with the Shaikh’s, or he would have been shown by God that the Shaikh’s heart is all Noor. Had he been attached with the Shaikh with a mirror-like clear heart of a Momin he would have seen in that mirror the God’s blessings on this friend of God and Aqa Ji.

  45. This “ex-Idrisi”‘s approach is purely that of a propagandist, he exposes himself by his very nickname–if he is a person who has dissociated himself from Idrisia, according to his own claim, why he is using the name “ex-Idrisi”? is this nostalgia? Or, more appropriately in this context, pure propaganda?

  46. This anti-Idrisia nonsense is nothing but propaganda.

  47. most respected mr,burhan sahib i made very humble request to you to answer few questions?i can see your lengthy posts but dont see any responce of you on my along with other idrisi have been claiming that sheikh amin was imam masjid in madina sharif for 30 or 20 years.i have asked you to give the address of that masjid where he was imam?i dont understand why you people ignore my question?
    i know you cant give any reference from quran o hadees that bhangra is sunaat but
    but u must accept that it is you who claims that sheikh amin was imam in a masjid so kindly bring the address of that masjid there nothing out of contest in it it is very simple
    matter you bring the address of that masjid where he was imam or did you write sheikh amin was a imam masjid with some unknow sayyaq o sabaq?my good friend burhan i made my statement very clear im asking you to bring the address of that masjid plz plz plz bring it.

  48. Salman Idrisi Says:

    I am 100% sure that this guy zahir is nothing but an imposter and you guys are upto a cheap propaganda. Alhamdulillah the Links that you provided on Youtube :) are nothing but proof of Sarkar’s infinate love to AQA G and Allah.

    The kind of statements you have been making, it reflects your arrogance, biasness. The truth is that there is no one on earth who would be able to help you comprehend what is being meant in those audios. Putting it simple It is just beyond your narrow mind to understand love and tariqat. By the way you remind me of the children of Israel who kept on behaving in the similar manner. But again this is Allah’s Hiqmat :) Mashahallah. :) :) :)

    As requested earlier Can you please try to explain the following Quaranic verse:

    “Wa Ma Arsalna ka ila Ramatalil Alameen” or lets just keep it simple for you as i believe Quranic Verse would be too complex for you to translate. so lets start with simple Arabic word “ALAMEEN” can you please try to translate/ comprehend what is Alameen? and what does it refers to?

    for General audince Alameen includes angles, prophits, Saints, Men, Women, jinnat (Male and femal), satins, devils, children, birds, beasts, raptiles, souls, trees, soil, water, elements, matter, muslims, christians, jews, hindus, athiests, kafirs, munafiqs,nonmuslims, Planets, sun, moons, stars, skys, knowledge, languages, emotions, fire, sand, skills, emotions, bectaria, thoughts, past, future, present, time, love, organims, seas, rivers, canals, fruits, vegitables, seasons, weather, storms, drought, rain,marines, technologies, domains, and so on……… i.e. All creations of Allah (SWT)

    so if quran says that AQA G (SAW) is mercy for the Alameen, who are you to say AQA G (SAW) did not prayed for Kafirs? All prophits had cursed their nations for wrong doings, Noah AL, Ibrahim AL, on an on till only AQA G (SAW) who (SAW) kept praying for everyone by the will of Allah (SWT) since Allah say in quran “Wa Ma arsalna ka ila Rehmatal lim Alameen” and the next statment you have been quoting that Allah asked AQA G (SAW) not to pray for Kufar is in the context that ( Allah has lots of Honor for his Mehboob AQA G ) and the context of Allah asking not to pray for Kufar is that Allah won’t forgive those who turned their face away from Aqa G”

    Anyways this is again beyond your understanding :) :)
    Khabi tum nay kisi say Ishq kiya ho to pat ho kay Ashiq ko Mahboob say kitna pyar hota hai our Ashiq ko Mahboob ki kitni Ghairat hoti hai.

    Regarding Bhangra: :) :) :) :) its pity to know your limited understanding of the subject please read through the following truth :) :) :) :) :)
    (again for the neutral audience)


    The Imams of Hadith have written commentaries on this Hadith.
    There were African companions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
    from Ethiopia and/or Abyssinia, the Bani Arfida (sons of Arfida)
    residents of Madinah that used to come to visit the Holy Prophet Muhammad
    (SAW) annually on the occasion of Id.

    In Bukhari it is stated that they were playing (yalhabu), dancing and playing
    in Masjid an-Nabawi, in front of the door of the Holy Prophet (SAW) house.
    Bukhari has recorded this in the Chapter, Playing in the Masjid, since
    the word playing appears in the text. So, readers of this Hadith concentrate
    more on playing than other aspects.

    Other Imams have also commented on this hadith. This being in the Chapter,
    Playing in the Masjid, in Bukhari, a question arises as to whether anyone
    has permission to play in the mosque? This is a place of prayer, reflection,
    bowing and prostration, so the answer is a definite, No! Yet, Bukhari has
    recorded this in the Sub Chapter, Spearplay in the Masjid.

    The following is recorded in

    Bukhari Book 4 Hadith 150 ,Book 1 Hadith 445 ,

    Muslim Book 4 Hadith 1941

    Tirmidhi and

    Abu Daud

    Several other imams Report the word
    RAQs in this hadith

    The Muslims of African descent used to come to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
    on the Day of Id and it is stated they were playing with spears in the Mosque
    and in front of the house door of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW). If one analyses
    this hadith and reflect as to where the door of the house of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
    opened, it opened leading to The Piece of Paradise on Earth (Riazul Jannah).

    Imam Tirmidhi did not use the word playing (yalhaboon) but utilized yaznifoon.
    Some have commentated on the activity saying that they were doing the war dance
    since they had spears etc. Could they have not performed a war dance outside in the
    open fields? They could never have played or performed a war dance at such a Place of
    Sacredness , the Masjid of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW), in front of the door of his blessed
    residence, standing on a piece of paradise.

    This hadith is in the

    Musnad of Imam Hamnbal,


    Nasai and as-Sunan al-Kubra etc.
    Umana Hazrat Aisha (Razi Allah Anha), reported that the Abysinians were standing in front of the door of
    the Holy Prophet (SAW) house and were ecstatically dancing or performing raqs on anticipation
    of seeing the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Hazrath Anas bin Maalik t, reports in the Musnad
    of Imam Hamnbal

    Here yazfiloo or raqs is mentioned. The Holy Prophet (SAW) called Umana Hazrat Aisha (Razi Allah Anha), to witness
    this ecstatic state of love, thus giving it his approval. Also, he asked the Sahaba as to
    what they were saying in this ecstatic state? The Sahaba told the Holy Prophet (SAW) that they were saying:

    Muhammad (SAW) is the most righteous slave of Allah Y

    In Tabarani it is recorded that Hazrath Aisha y, said:

    I had my hand on the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) s shoulder whilst they, the Africans, performed raqs

    In another version of this hadith it is stated:

    The Holy Prophet (SAW) invited Umana Hazrat Aisha (Razi Allah Anha) to watch the dance, took her into the crowd,
    and lifted her over his back, so that she could watch them clearly as she eagerly leaned
    forward, her cheek pressing against his.

    In Sahih, ibn Hibban recording this incident the word yazfiloona meaning raks is also used.

    Only a dance to please the beloved, extreme love of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)

    I don’t know what would be the response of a follower of ABUJAHIL… but fellow Muslims,
    check this out:

    “Hazrat Ali Razi Allah Tala said: I visited the Prophet (SAW) with Ja`far ibn
    Abi Talib and Zayd ibn Haritha. He said to Zayd: “You are my freedman”
    , whereupon Zayd began to hop on one leg around the prophet.
    The Prophet then said to Ja`far: “You resemble me in my creation and
    my manners”, whereupon Ja`far began to hop behind Zayd. The Prophet then
    said to me: “You pertain to me and I pertain to you” whereupon I began to
    hop behind Ja`far.

    Haqq is coming and batil must go! :) :) :) :) :) :) : )

    Name of the Masjid where Sarkar was Imam is Masjid An-Noor :) :) :) Allah-O-Akbar ! ! ! ! ! ! :) :) :) :) :)

    and your stupid claim regarding Sarkar’s zulf sharif :) :) :) :) :) Allah-O-Akbar !!!!!!!!

    Ibn Majah narrated that: “the Prophet once washed himself from Janaba (ritual ceremonial washing) then he noticed that there was a small place which was not moistened, so he moistened it with the wet hair that was hanging over his shoulders”.
    It is not reported from the scholars of Islam that they defined a given length to the hair. So, there is no harm in lengthening or shortening it provided that one does not do this to imitate non-Muslims. :) :) :) :)

    Haqq is coming and batil must go! :) :) :) :) :) :) : )

    So either submit or stop giving such negative comments. further just a humanly advise show some decency and try to be more reasonable when you are referring to a person who is elder than you parents.

  49. Respected usman sahib
    I think you have not read my pervious posts,my question was sheikh amin sahib gave a statement in which he said dance (bhangra is the sunaat of rasool Allah) im sure what is the meaning of sunaat
    A act which was done by Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) is called sunaat so kindly bring the reference
    From quran or hadees where it is mention that prophet Mohammad ever danced (maz Allah)
    My respected friend usman sahib kindly tell me if dance is sunaat of Aqa ji or it is not sunaat of Aqa ji? If you say like your sheikh sahib said that bhangra is the sunaat then I humbly ask you to bring the reference of it.i hope I don’t have to repeat my question and you will come with direct
    Answer with quran o hadees reference.
    2nd question was according to sheikh amin sahib Allah would not allow Aqa ji to perform the funeral of non-believers but Aqa ji kept performing funeral of kafars(maz Allah) as you and sheikh sahib might know that Abdullah bin Ubay was a munafiq not kafar abu jahil ,lahaab were kafars
    my question was that you must prove that when and where aqa ji disoby Allah and kept reading namazay jinaza of kafar? Ask your sheikh to give the list of the name of kafars whom namaz jinaz
    was done by Aqa ji even against the will of Allah (maz Allah)
    my dear respected idrisi friends im not asking the name of the masjid where sheikh amin was imam for 30 or 20 years I have made many requsts to know the address of that masjid in madina sharif where sheikh amin was imam?i have asked some friends who live in madina to find the address of masjid an noor but they could not find that masjid so that’s why my friends asking me to get the address of it then it will be easy for them to find the masjid if sheikh was imam masjid there then
    he must know the address the past some of his murid wrote that he was imam masjid in
    (SHEIKH HAFIZ AMIN BIN MOHAMMAD ABDUREHMAN remained a rigistered Imam of Mosque(masjid) HAZRAT BILAL situated near MASJID NABWI from late seventees to late eightees and also known by the present imam-e- kabas.

    Shaikh Mohammad Ameen bin Abdurrahman is a prominent sufi Shaikh. He spent most of his time in Saudi Arabia in the past. He remianed registered imam of MASJID/MOSQUE HAZRAT BILAL situated near khana KAABA MASJID NABWI S.A.W.W.He is now based in Multan, a city in southern Punjab. His followed are believed to be in many thousands and are on rise. His followers gather at his house in Shah Rukn-e-Alam Colony in Multan, which is converted to a mosque….
    Read article at Wikipedia

    So my friends if you can kindly help me by giving the address of that masjid so I can make sure if
    Sheikh amin sahib was imam or not.
    I hope you will come with the address of that masjid in your next post.

    • auliyanur Says:

      Dear Zahir,kindly contact the concerned organization in order to get detailed answers to your questions.your curiosity and zeal to know more and understand requires you to focus on getting information rather involve in an endless debate which will benefit neither and your questions will remain unanswered.good luck !

  50. FYI…..Plaxico Burress The NFL Footbal Player Begins Prison Sentence Today!
    Not that I have anything against the guy but finally these athletes might start to get it….You CAN’T just do anything you want and get away with it. If I get caught with a gun, I would have to do time too.

    Just my 2 cents…..

  51. Masjid Abdul Rahim Uwaiza, Hara Manshiyah, located on the road to Masjid-i-Nabvi’s Bab-u-Salaam. This is the mosque where Al-Shaikh Al-Hafiz Syedi Amin bin Abdul Rahman was Imam for 20 years before coming to Pakistan.

  52. Ahmed Idrisi Says:

    As Saam o Alaikum Brother burhan,
    Thanks for sharing your views about pair Shaikh Ameen Sahib, may i know if you are really idrisi bhai? Did you have the permission of shaikh sahib to reply on his behalf? I have just talk to shaikh sahib, he said to me “It is not true that I was imam in Masjid Abdul Rahim Uwaiza for 20 years, acctully I was imam in An-noor masjid for 30 years.” Apart from that many idrisi bhais have mentioned on different forums (over internet) that Shaikh sahib was imam in An-noor masjid for 30 years

    If You are really idrissi bhai then You have no right to give any wrong information about shaikh Sahib, please cantact markaz as soon as possible and ask for ihtasham. But if you are not Idrissi then just go to multan shareef and see Shaikh Sahib, so all your misunderstandings can go off your mind.

    Also you can ask from markaz about this matter by sending mail at, or calling at no: +92-61-6784000

  53. wa alaikumussalaam wb
    Thank you for reminding me about that
    This blog is solely for information and educational purposes
    I will make the changes pretty soon
    kindly excuse me for any inconvenience i might have caused

  54. Shahariar Kabir Nasser Says:

    is it true?

  55. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 1 Ritual and Charisma in Naqshbandi Sufi Mysticism by Ken Lizzio, Ph.D. Over the past twenty-five years or so, the post-everything (post-modernism, structuralism, colonialism, positivism), the attempt to portray “how the natives think” (or thought), or even what they are doing when they do what they do, has come in for a good deal of moral, political, and philosophical attack. The mere claim “to know better,” which it would seem any anthropologist would have at least implicitly to make, seems at least faintly illegitimate. To say something about the forms of life of Hawaiians (or anybody else) that Hawaiians do not themselves say opens one to the charge that one is writing out other people’s consciousness for them, scripting their souls. -Clifford Geertz As in all intellectual debates, both sides tend to be correct in what they affirm and wrong in what they deny. -John Stuart Mill Abstract This article is an ethnographic study of an Islamic mystical (Sufi) order based in the tribal area of Pakistan. Fieldwork was conducted in 1996-1997 as a participantobserver of the order and at other sites in and around Pakistan. By using broader methods and theory more appropriate to the analysis of mysticism, the article aims to challenge previous ethnographic studies of the Sufi orders that attributed their existence largely to social, political, and economic factors. By more clearly defining both the nature of saintly charisma and the mystical ritual process, it argues that the raison d’être of the orders is the cultivation of deeper states of consciousness. It concludes by calling for a new theoretical framework, a “transcendental anthropology” more appropriate to elucidating mystical states and practices. In the Fall of 1991, while working in Pakistan, I met Pir Saifur Rahman and his disciples at their hospice in the wooly Khyber Tribal Agency of Pakistan.1 Saifur Rahman is an Islamic mystic of the Mujaddidi branch of the Naqshbandi order of Sufism. Although I had done academic work on Sufism, I had never actually met a Sufi or visited a Sufi hospice, but I thought I had a pretty good idea of what I would find. I was about to see most of my preconceptions dissolve before my eyes. 1 The term pir, which literally means “old man” in Persian, is an honorific given to Sufi masters. Many other terms are employed to denote spiritual mastery, the most common being shaikh (chief) and murshid (master). © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 2 When I arrived that afternoon at the hospice, I was told that the Pir was resting and would not be out until sunset prayer. In the intervening time, I conversed with several of his disciples under a verandah used for receiving guests. Among the Pir’s visitors that day were a businessman from Karachi, two local merchants, two Afghan mujahiddin fighters in the war against the Soviet-backed government in Kabul, and some college students. In short, my interlocutors were a cross section of modern Pakistani-Afghan society. In the course of an otherwise intelligent conversation about Sufism, a few would suddenly ejaculate, “Ya‘llah!” (Oh, God!). Another’s torso would suddenly jerk and twist as if a shiver had run up his spine. Another peculiar thing I noticed was a pronounced beating of their hearts beneath their shirts. Their pupils were dilated as if in trance, yet they were fully alert and articulate. Apart from these strange and bewildering phenomena, my interlocutors were, as far as I could discern, entirely normal, rational, and sane. Around five o’clock, the Pir entered the courtyard clad in a shimmering turquoise cloak and an immaculate white turban. I expected the disciples to gather for prayer quietly and without fanfare, like monks. Instead, some of the men with whom I had conversed moments before suddenly began weeping, screaming, and shaking uncontrollably. One disciple shook the Pir’s hand and recoiled screaming as if he had touched something hot. Another man fell to the ground at the sight of the shaikh, his body writhing violently in the dust. Unmoved by these histrionics, the Pir strolled imperiously about the courtyard, greeting everyone, including myself, warmly and with perfect equanimity. I was instructed to sit under the verandah until the prayer session ended. When it was finished, I was taken into the hospice library where I was introduced to another Sufi, Pir Habibur Rahman. Habib’s sobriquet was pir-i piran, signifying he was a master of other Sufi masters. He had flashing green eyes and a mischievous smile. I explained to him that I had a Master’s degree in Sufism, considered myself something of an expert on the subject, and had always wanted to visit a Sufi hospice. He seemed genuinely impressed by my assertions. We then embarked on wide-ranging discussion of Sufi literature. At one point, I was quoting a verse from the Turkish mystic poet Jalaladin Rumi’s (d.1273) Divan-i Shams-i Tabriz when one of the disciples, a university student, leaned over my shoulder to interject something. Habib looked over my right shoulder at him, and the young man was cut short in mid-sentence. He began to shake uncontrollably as if he were having a grand mal seizure. He fell backward on the floor where his paroxysms continued undiminished. Shocked, I turned around and looked askance at Habib. But his smiling countenance had turned sour. He scoffed in Persian, “Sufism! What do you know about Sufism? All you know are books!” Gesturing with his hand toward the disciple now lying in peaceful afterglow on the floor, he added triumphantly, “This is Sufism!” I had to admit he was right. In terms of living Sufi practice, I had absolutely no knowledge or experience whatever. Habib’s assertion carried all the more weight given his impressive knowledge © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 3 of the texts and his own Naqshbandi historical antecedents. While a (hermeneutic) reading of Sufi texts would suggest these Sufis were encountering the mysterium tremendum that marks the spiritual encounter, I was nonetheless shocked by their dramatic, violent physical reactions, especially in the presence of the pirs. What accounted for the violent nature of this form of Sufi mystical experience and for some of the bizarre somatic phenomena attendant to it such as the beating heart? And what role did the Pir play in precipitating these energetic phenomena, and by what means? This article is an ethnographic investigation into a contemporary Naqshbandi Sufi khanaqah or Islamic mystical community.2 Research was conducted under a Fulbright grant in 1996-1997. It is an emic account based on participation in the order as a disciple of Saifur Rahman at his khanaqah in the Khyber. Fieldwork was supplemented with archival research at the khanaqah and several public libraries, and interviews with local government officials, tribal elders, and religious figures. As an ethnographic enterprise, this study was undertaken to correct a tendency among ethnographers to focus almost exclusively on the socio-political aspects of the Sufi orders while neglecting—even dismissing—that aspect of Sufism that is its raison d’être, the cultivation of spiritual life, a central aspect of which is achieving altered states of consciousness. As a corrective to this reductionism, this study uses broader theory and methods to investigate mystical experience. Methodologically, it combines the strengths of both ethnographic investigation and historical/textual analysis. Recent theories in transpersonal psychology more appropriate to elucidating altered or mystical states of consciousness are used to analyze some of the findings. The argument set forth in this work is necessarily partial. The difficulty of gathering data, the elusive nature of states of consciousness, and the long-term nature of spiritual development preclude any sweeping conclusions. Rather, this study demonstrates how the use of broader methods and theory to investigate mystical experience can avert the usual ethnocentric biases without sacrificing a necessary critical component. Hopefully, it will provoke some disciplinary reflection in the anthropology of religion and give it the new theoretical direction it needs. Representing Sufism Early ethnographic studies of the Sufi order were guided by structuralist/functionalist theory, which explained the workings of the orders largely in social, political, or economic terms. Even native anthropological studies were informed by these theories probably because their authors 2 Given the great varieties of religious experience, this study distinguishes “mystical” or “spiritual” religion from other types of religious engagement. As used in this study, the terms “mystical” and “spiritual” refer to those traditions that, by means of a regime of mental exercises and moral purification, seek to transcend normal egoic consciousness. According to practitioners, the process leads progressively through more advanced or deeper states of consciousness, culminating in a state of radical non-duality. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 4 were themselves Western educated.3 Of course, methodological reasons also account for some of the shortcomings. The majority of ethnographic studies were conducted by Western (i.e., non- Muslim) anthropologists who would have been prohibited from attending Sufi ceremonies and other ritual activities. Thus, theories that emphasized ancillary and external aspects of the orders tended to be very much suited to the methods of investigation. While anthropological hermeneutics attempted to correct the perceived limitations of structuralism/functionalism, it too suffered from an untested assumption: that mystical experience is socially constructed and therefore not “really real,” to quote anthropologist Clifford Geertz (Geertz 1973: 78-125).4 Other ethnographies purporting to focus on Sufi spiritual life have paid too much attention to the role played by symbolic and linguistic structures in informing the Sufi worldview (Trix 1993). In point of fact, there has been a patent unwillingness to fairly examine Sufi truth claims of spiritual transformation. This bias has engendered a misunderstanding of the nature and function of Sufi spiritual power (baraka) and its application in Sufi rituals. By extension, the somatic and psychological experiences of the disciples have been similarly misinterpreted, often viewed as “irrational” behavior of the poor and uneducated.5 Anthropologists who studied Sufi spiritual power (baraka) have generally followed Weber’s analysis of charisma. Weber defined charisma as the power of holy men over their followers. According to Weber it is, [A] certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which he is set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, super-human, or at least specifically exceptional power or qualities…regarded as of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual is treated as a leader (Weber 1968: 48-49). Despite this empathetic definition, Weber was uninterested in the precise nature of the holy man’s exceptional power. A sociologist, he was more intrigued by the social consequences of the holy manfollower relationship that grew out of charisma. For this reason, Weber and a generation of anthro- 3 The various works of Akbar Ahmed, for example, employ structuralist/functiontionalist theory to explain the success of the order’s and their leaders. See the reference section for citations of his works. 4 Since the 1970s, the concept of the symbolic basis of experience has been further elaborated. Some anthropologists now go so far as to imply that, apart from the symbol itself, virtually nothing real exists. For an example of this kind of post-modernist argument, see Edward M. Bruner and Victor Turner (1986). 5 About Sufism in the tribal areas of Afghanistan, Richard Tapper said that it is the poor and ignorant who pursue ecstatic practices. For this reason, “men with secular power or social claims to religious piety and learning take an ambivalent attitude to Sufi activities.” To the contrary, many Sufis, including Saifur Rahman, are ‘ulama and widely recognized as such. Tapper’s argument fails to account for the fact that many Sufis pursuing “ecstatic practices” are among the educated elite, not to mention the intellectual sophistication of Sufi thought and practice. (Tapper 1984:244-265). © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 5 pologists who succeeded him tended to view religious charismatics, not as spiritual educators, but as social revolutionaries: [C]harismatic authority is specifically irrational in the sense of being foreign to all rules….Within the sphere of its claims, charismatic authority repudiates the past, and is in this sense a specifically revolutionary force (Weber 1968: 52). Subsequent anthropologists who studied Sufism, such as Gellner, Gilsenan, Cruise O’Brien, and Ahmed maintained the meaning of charisma was to be found in the structure of social relations. All products of the British school of structuralism/functionalism, they stressed the social context shaping belief in the shaikh’s charismatic power. In discussing Sufi shaikhs of Pakistan’s Swat valley, for example, Ahmed wrote: Charisma remains largely a function of success; its qualities are both inherent in the person and in the social situation. The charismatic leader is convinced of his ‘mission’ or ‘destiny’ but he must convince those around him of his capacity for leadership (Ahmed 1976: 14). Because Ahmed viewed the shaikh’s charisma chiefly as a function of the social situation, when he attempted to explain the nature of the shaikh’s “qualities,” he runs into difficulty. “Charisma,” he says, “creates following and following creates charisma.” (Ahmed 1976: 115) At no point does he attempt to explain how one acquires charisma or a following in the first place. In discussing Sufi Miangul Abdul Khaliq’s (d.1892) success in establishing Islamic rule in Swat, he wrote: Funds and followers go hand in hand with a charismatic leader and are a vital index to his fortunes. There is a circular and cumulative causation between funds, followers, and charisma. The relationship with his followers was based on the same principles of redistributive economies that the Akhund [of Swat] had established (Ahmed 1976: 113). To extricate himself from his predicament, he resorted to an economic interpretation: in the final analysis, it is really money that lies behind charisma. While continuing to circumvent the central question of charisma, Ahmed merely adds another link in the chain of circular logic, for it begs the question of how money starts flowing to the top of the redistributive system in the first place. Donal Cruise O’Brien believed the source of charisma lay in a reputation (read: apocryphal) for miracle-working. In unequivocally Weberian terms, Cruise O’Brien believes followers are moved to recognize miraculous powers in a shaikh when in the throes of a social crisis (Cruise O’Brien 1988). In his view, miracles can be as trivial as literacy among an illiterate population. Such, we are to believe, is the ignorance and gullibility of desperate believers driven to desperate measures. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 6 A similar symbolic/structuralist interpretation was advanced by Geertz (Geertz 1968) and Gilsenan (Gilsenan 1982). Saintly charisma, they believed, inheres in the complex of myths, legends, and anecdotes about the shaikh. Mythical tales invariably concern feats of extraordinary power that set the shaikh apart from mere mortals. In Geertz’s words, they constitute a “discourse of legitimation” that follows an established processual narrative: 1) initiation through an ordeal; 2) achievement of and access to esoteric knowledge; and 3) triumph over temporal authority. In the same sort of circular logic employed by Ahmed, Geertz says stories become persuasive by virtue of the shaikh’s socially powerful position. Geertz’s symbolic approach to the analysis of Sufi authority extends to the nature of baraka itself. It is nothing more than a concept, a “cultural gloss” on life: Literally, “baraka” means blessing, in the sense of divine favor. But spreading out from that nuclear meaning…, it encloses a whole range of linked ideas, material prosperity, physical well-being, bodily satisfaction, completion, luck, plenitude, and, the aspect most stressed by western writers anxious to force it into a pigeonhole with mana, magical power. In broadest terms, “baraka” is not… a paraphysical force, a kind of spiritual electricity…it too is a “doctrine” (Geertz 1968: 44). Geertz seems guilty here of ‘scripting Sufi souls.’ Indeed, as the foregoing indicates, anthropological analysis of Sufi charisma was based on an a priori rejection that baraka had any reality outside social power relations. There was thus no consideration of the central importance of the shaikh’s charisma to the process of spiritual transformation, or of the disciples’ profound somatic reactions to it, and an adequate theory of this process is still lacking in the social sciences.6 On the whole, there has been a tendency to use theoretical frameworks in ways that confirm—not challenge— epistemological assumptions. Reality so defined becomes, ethnocentrically, our own Western version of it. The competing claims of Sufi mystics, many of whom produced some of the world’s most profound philosophical and literary works, are pushed aside by anthropologists as irrelevant or delusional.7 The anthropology of Sufism summarily dismisses the very thing it is asked to explain. This study of the Naqshbandi/Mujaddi order corrects some of the distortions of previous anthropological studies of Sufism occasioned by inadequate theory, ethnocentric biases, or insufficient data. It shows the raison d’être of the orders to be fundamentally transcendental in nature and only secondarily and by extension social, economic, and political. Key components of Sufi spirituality are the mysterious nature of the shaikh’s charisma, and a ritual process that is dynamic and open-ended. The paper contends that neither of these can be fully explained by 6 Michael Washburn has undertaken the first attempt at a psychoanalytic explanation in The Ego and the Dynamic Ground: A Transpersonal Theory of Human Development (Albany, N.Y.: SUNY Press, 1988). 7 See for example the discussion of Emerson’s theory of the oversoul in James W. Fernandez (1986). © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 7 reference to known or mundane processes, but can only be understood within the context of an expanded view of human nature and human development that Sufism offers. The Naqshbandi Tariqa 8 The Naqshbandi is one of the largest and most widespread Sufi orders in the Islamic world. Like other Sufis, they trace their origin to the Prophet Muhammad, the mystic exemplar par excellence. He is at once the messenger of God who conveyed both exoteric (normative) and esoteric (mystical) practices, the archetype of the ideal man (insan al-kamal) whom Sufis seek to imitate in all respects, and the channel for divine grace (baraka).9 Sufis maintain that this grace is passed down through the Prophet to various generations of spiritual preceptors in an unbroken chain or silsila. This grace, first transferred from shaikh to disciple during the ritual of spiritual initiation (bay‘a), is said to give the disciple access to a transcendent sphere. Sufis maintain detailed biographies of the teachers in their silsila who exemplified the Prophetic ideal and serve as repositories, living and deceased, of baraka. The accounts of their lives also contain didactic tales and instructive sayings to be applied in everyday life. In these ways, Naqshbandi Sufism constitutes a cumulative tradition, orally, literally, and experientially. The founder of the Mujaddidi branch of Naqshbandis is Sayyid Ahmad Sirhindi (d.1642). A scholar and mystic, Sirhindi is famous for having rescued Indian Islam from absorption into Hinduism by undertaking a far-reaching intellectual and spiritual revival movement.10 For his achievement, Sirhindi earned the title of “Mujaddid ‘Alf al-Thani” or “Renewer of the Second Millennium.” The concept of the “renewer” comes from a saying of the Prophet that Islam would periodically be revitalized by an outstanding religious leader. Appearing at the end of a cycle of spiritual decline that lasted nearly a thousand years, Sirhindi was a renewer not merely of the century but of the millennium. For this reason, even though Muhammad was the last Prophet in Islam, in the eyes of the Mujaddidis at least, Sirhindi assumes near prophetic stature.11 Sirhindi’s practice of dispatching khalifas back to their native regions to carry on his missionary work led to the implantation of the Naqshbandi/Mujaddidi teaching in Afghanistan. Fourteen of 8 For a brief history of the Naqshbandi order, see Hamid Algar (1976). See also Hamid Algar (1975). 9 Naqshbandis have two chains of transmission. A minor one goes back through the Prophet’s grandson ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (d. 661), and is the one used by most Sufi orders. The major line runs through Abu Bakr (d. 634), the first khalifa in Islam. The two chains are said to reflect the twin aspects of Naqshbandi practice: the ‘Alid chain represents the esoteric spiritual practices, while the Bakri link signifies strict adherence to the shari‘a and the exemplary behavior of the Prophet. The Bakri chain thus marks one of the features that distinguish Naqshbandis from the other orders: a thoroughgoing adherence to Islamic law. 10 The single best study of Sirhindi’s life and work is by Yohanan Friedmann (1971). 11 Friedmann observes that with the advent of Sirhindi, “the perfections regained their splendor to such an extent that the millennial period is barely distinguishable from the prophetic one. The religious situation has been changed for the better, and the Day of Judgment has been postponed again.” Friedmann (1989). © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 8 the twenty khalifas he designated were from Afghanistan and Central Asia.12 Sirhindi’s third son and successor, Ghulam Muhammad Ma’sum (d.1668), greatly accelerated its diffusion by designating over seven thousand khalifas. Many of these khalifas were from Afghanistan and, after receiving the khalifate (permission to teach), they returned home to conduct missionary work.13 Once implanted in Kabul, the Mujaddidi branch allied itself with the monarchy. In time it supplanted rival Naqshbandi orders, becoming the most influential order in Afghanistan. Spiritual Theosophy of the Naqshbandi/Mujaddidis Sirhindi had refined Naqshbandi teachings by elaborating a more precise conceptual road map of mystical states as well as more precise methods for attaining them. According to his cosmology (Fig. 1), the world is created by God’s eternal and uncreated formless essence (‘ayn al-dhat).14 Sirhindi maintained that although God created the world, there is no relationship between creation and His formless essence. Formless essence gives rise to four levels of manifestation via a transitional realm called the “quality of wholeness” (sha’n al-jami). It acts as a bridge between the uncreated and created realms, thereby protecting God’s unique nature. The created realms comprise a hierarchy of levels descending from subtle qualities (latifa) toward gross material existence (kathif). The first level of manifestation is Oneness (ahadiyya) or Essence (dhat). The second level, Unity (wahdat), contains two stages: the “unity of essence” represents the oneness of the divine self because its attributes are still undifferentiated at this stage of unfolding. It is here, according to Sirhindi, where the mystic realizes stable, unitive consciousness (baqa’). At the lower level of wahdat is the “unity of being,” which contains the principles or seeds (usul) of the divine attributes (sifat). In the third level of manifestation, Uniqueness (wahidiyya), the attributes are articulated; eight divine attributes (sifat-i dhat-i haqiqi) qualify transcendent being through affirmation, (i.e., life, power, and knowledge). Eight attributes of negation (sifat-i salbi) deny imperfection in God while at the same time affirming His unique nature (e.g., He has no equal, no beginning or end); the positive attributes (sifat-i fi’liyya) describe Him in terms similar to the eight attributes: merciful, lifegiver, creator, and so forth. The fourth level of manifestation represents man and the rest of the created world together called the Circle of Contingent Existence” (da’ira-i imkan). On the upper level of the circle lies the 12 Three of his leading Afghan shaikhs were Maulana Ahmad (d.1617), Shaikh Yusuf (d.1624-25), and Shaikh Hassan, all of whom had originally come from Bark south of Kabul, returning there as Sirhindi’s khalifas in the early seventeenth century. Shaikh Hassan was particularly active in eradicating religious innovation in the Kabul-Qandahar region. Other khalifas went to Balkh, Kabul, Badakhshan, Kohistan, Laghman, Ghorband, and Logar. Olesen (1995: 48) 13 For a detailed discussion of Sirhindi’s khalifas, see Sayyid Athar Abbas Rizvi (1978) 14 For the elaboration of Naqshbandi/Mujaddidi cosmology, I am indebted to Ahmad Javaid, researcher at the Iqbal Academy in Lahore. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 9 “world of divine command” (‘alam al-amr).15 Insofar as the ‘alam al-amr is linked to the higher levels of manifestation, it represents the macrocosm. Its direction is one of ascent and God’s unity of essence is the goal or end of the journey. On the lower level of the circle is the “world of creation” (‘alam al-khalq), the gross physical world comprising the four elements and man’s nafs or lower nature. The‘alam al-khalq represents the microcosm, and its movement is one of descent. The world of divine command represents the spiritual domain; the world of creation represents material existence, including mental life. These two worlds are joined by a transitional realm called “the world of ideas” (‘alam al-mithal). Here abstract forms precede their manifestation in the gross material world. These abstract ideas are identical to the Platonic archetypes. They represent a creative, imaginal—not imaginary—realm that gives form to the material world. As a deeper realm of consciousness, ‘alam al-mithal is also the realm of Sufi visions, dreams, and spiritual contact with teachers, which play such important functions in spiritual life, providing guidance, spiritual commissions and initiations, and directing disciples to their chosen shaikh. In his description of the nature of visions Ibn al-‘Arabi points to the clear difference between the simply imaginary and the imaginal: They [dream-visions] are a truth and a revelation. A person does not have to be asleep to see them; they may occur during sleep or they may occur at other times. In whichever state they occur, they are a dreamvision in imagination through sense perception, but not in the sensory realm. That which is seen imaginally may lie on the inside, within the faculty, or it may come from the outside through the imaginalization of a spiritual being or through the self-disclosure well-know to the Tribe [Sufis]—but it is a true imagination (khayal haqiqi). (Chittick 1989: 262). 15 The worlds of creation and command are based on Qur’anic phraseology such as, “The spirit is of the command of my Lord” [17:85]. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 10 Figure 1 The Naqshbandi Cosmology These two worlds are joined by a transitional realm called “the world of ideas” (‘alam al-mithal). Formless Essence (‘ayn-al-dhat) quality of wholeness (sha’n al-jami) Oneness (ahadiyya) Unity of Essence Unity of Being oneness of the divine self with self with the principles or attributes undifferentiated attributes (usul al-sifat). The haqiqa Muhammadi and source of akhfa’ jism: forms of life: soul water, fire earth, air stage of fana’ or wilayat alsughra stage of baqa’ or wilayat alkubra differentiated attributes (al-asma’ wa al-sifat) and source of first four lata’if forms of creation in divine knowledge Uniqueness (wahidiyya) ‘alam al-amr archetypes: origins of physical life forms ruh: origin of life ‘alam al-khalq ‘alam al-mithal wahdat Circle of Contingent Existence (da’ira al-imkan) © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 11 The ‘alam al-mithal is an intermediate world where the two worlds of divine command and divine creation, of ascent and descent, macrocosm and microcosm, coincide. Humankind is poised at the juncture of these two worlds because it comprises all three dimensions of existence: body, mind and spirit. The relationship may be depicted as such: Man Creator Created ‘alam al-amr ruh ‘aql jism ‘alam al-khalq Each ontological domain has its own modes of perception and interaction between the two worlds. The body, rooted in time and subject to processes of growth and decay, employs the five senses to mediate the material world. Because the mind functions to interpret or attach meaning to what the bodily senses convey, it too lies in the temporal domain. The mind has its own five “senses” analogous to the body: memory, imagination, thinking, hallucination, and desire. Insofar as body and mind are subject to temporality, alone they cannot perceive the transcendental domains. However, they do employ symbols to represent the transcendent. Like the body and mind, the soul has its own inner senses (hawas batini). Najm al-Din Razi (d.1256) warned not to conflate the functioning of these inner senses with their bodily analogues: In the same way that none of the five outer senses can interfere with the functioning of another, hearing being unable to perceive the visible…so too none of the five inner senses can interfere with the functioning of another. The intelligence cannot perceive that which is visible to the heart…. Thus when those who survey the rationally comprehensible with the gaze of the intelligence (‘aql) wished to survey the world of the heart, the mystery, the spirit, and the arcane, again using their fettered intelligence in ignorance of that which the heart beholds and the other degrees of perception, inevitably their intelligence fell into the trap of philosophy and heresy (Razi 1982: 138-139).16 16 Najm al-Din Razi was an Iranian disciple of the Kubrawi order. He fled Iran on the eve of the Mongol invasion and settled in Anatolia where he wrote his masterpiece on the philosophy and spiritual morphology of Sufism. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 12 Naqshbandis say that the individual who remains in the visible senses and does not partake of the invisible ones is “one of the Mu’tazila,” that is, an arch-rationalist.17 These inner senses have a somatic analogue in a network of subtle centers in the human torso called lata’if (sing. latifa), which collectively form the morphological basis for Naqshbandi spiritual transformation.18 The lata’if have been described as subtle centers, sheaths, fields, or bodies. To describe them as subtle centers is misleading, however, for the lata’if have no fixed location and could be anywhere in the body. Logically, if they were fixed, say Naqshbandis, they would be bound by the temporal world. The one exception to this may be the heart, which is the one lata’if linked to a particular organ of the body. Henri Corbin notes that there is a vital connection between the spiritual heart and the physical one, though the modality is essentially unknown (Corbin 1969: 221). The heart is also unique in being the only lata’if not associated with an element. While dense matter is subject to the laws of time and space, the lata’if are subject only to laws of space. The lata’if are thus trans-temporal. As Warren Fusfeld observes, the lata’if are “local manifestations of identically named parts of a higher realm of the cosmological structure, which is above the realm of created things” (Fusfeld 1981: 91). In their local or bodily manifestation, the lata’if facilitate the disciple’s reception of grace by providing, as Arthur Buehler notes, a morphology for the spirit’s descent and attachment to the human frame.19 Naqshbandis maintain that the lata’if constitute the morphological basis for Sufism found in some form in all Sufi orders and without which cannot be Sufism. The first five lata’if (see Figure 2) are located within the world of divine command, the last two are in the world of creation, signifying spirit’s complete descent into the manifest world. The first latifa is the heart (qalb) located two inches below the left nipple; its color is yellow, and its prophet is Adam, the first man. The second, spirit (ruh), is located two fingers below the right breast opposite the heart; its color is red, and its prophets are Abraham and Noah. On the left side of the breast above the heart lies the mystery (sirr); its color is white, and its prophet is Moses. On the right side opposite the sirr is the arcane (khafi); its color is white, and its prophet is Jesus. The vertical passage 17 The Mu’tazila was a school of Islamic theology that flourished in Iraq during the ninth century. The Mu’tazila stressed the use of human free will, arguing that justice is a necessary feature of any definition of God and that, since God must be just, human beings must be free to choose between good and evil. The principle of God’s justice led them to reject the doctrine of predestination and affirm human free will and an individual’s power and reason over one’s actions. 18 The term latifa derives from the Arabic word latif, meaning “sensitive or subtle.” First mentioned by contemporaries of the Iraqi mystic, Ahmad ibn al-Junaid (d. 910), they were more systematically developed by the Central Asian Kubrawi Sufis, especially, Razi, who formulated the first five. Another Naqshbandi, ‘Ala Uddawla Simnani (d.1336) added the last two. Sirhindi articulated this model in greater detail and linked it more closely to practice. For a discussion of the historical development of the lata’if, see (Buehler 1998) 19 Compare the similarity of Sufi morphology with the subtle centers found in the Hindu chakra system. There are seven chakras arranged along the spinal line. The last chakra, the sahasrara also occurs at the crown of the head. Naqshbandis believe the lata’if are directly analogous to these Hindu chakras. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 13 between the four lata’if corresponds physically to the sternum and is called the higher arcane (akhfa’); its color is green, and its Prophet is Muhammad. Muhammad thus represents the apex of the World of Divine Command, the supreme center. The first four lata’if are linked to God’s differentiated attributes in wahidiyya from which they receive their baraka. The fifth, akhfa’, originates in wahdat (unity). The next latifa is the soul (nafs) located in the middle of the forehead between the eyes. The origin of the nafs is in the last latifa, qalab. The qalab corresponds to the physical body and is composed of the four basic elements: water, air, earth and fire. Within qalab are four additional lata’if, which have their origin in the four major lata’if. Water derives from ruh, fire from sirr, air from khafi and earth from akhfa’. Each successive lata’if both incorporates and transcends the previous one. Thus, the first four centers are enfolded and completed in the fifth or akhfa’. Each latifa is associated with a particular color and prophet who is said to have specialized in that particular latifa.20 The dominant color of each can be perceived when the eyes are closed. When two centers are activated at the same time, a mixture of their respective colors is perceived. Not all disciples experience these colors, and it is thought to be an experience in a realm inferior to the spiritual called the “psychic.” Each latifa has a particular set of moral injunctions and contemplative practices required for its mastery, to “brighten” it. Qalb requires the disciple to cultivate humility, perform long prayers, and prayers of repentance (istighfar). The stage of ruh enjoins the disciple not to be distracted or enticed by the manifest world (tashbih) and to fast. At this stage, the disciple may experience visions (mushahadat). In the domain of sirr, the disciple follows the law (shari‘a) and is morally steadfast (mustaqmi‘) within. In khafi one must be Godfearing and avoid things which are permissible for other Muslims. The disciple should also recite the divine negation and reject all doubts (mushtabahat). One feels the love of God at this stage. In akhfa’ one follows not merely the outward sunna but an inner sunna as well and regularly recites personal prayers (du‘a).21 At this stage, the disciple gains ma’rifa or gnostic wisdom. The akhfa’ stage in wahdat marks the stage of a wali or pir, signifying the mastery of the transcendent domains. In nafs the individual’s base instincts are completely cleansed. This stage is the highest level of sainthood for it signifies the moral and spiritual purification of the saint in both thought and action. Beyond these dimensions, lies God’s Essence, which is ontologically unattainable but conceivable. Formless Essence, on the other hand, is even beyond man’s ability to conceive of. Humans can come 20 Compare the similarity of the Naqshbandi color scheme to that of the Moroccan Gnawa order. During their all-night ritual, the adepts are possessed by seven genies or colors, signifying their spiritual transport through the various realms. The process culminates in the mystic union with God depicted as white (Paaques 1991). 21 The term “sunna” refers to the sayings and behavior of the Prophet recorded in the hadith. The “inner sunna” aims to go beyond mere outward actions by interiorizing the deeper intention or disposition behind them. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 14 to know only the divine self but never God’s Formless Essence.22 While Naqhbandi theorists distinguish many more subtle stages between these, this is the basic map of spiritual ascent.23 Figure 2: Spiritual Morphology of the Naqshbandi/Mujaddidi 22 Once again, this issue is one that has been debated for centuries in Sufism and may owe more to theological than mystical differences (i.e, the concern of Sufis such as Sirhindi and al-Junaid to ward against antinomian tendencies engendered by the public admission that they are not merely communing with the divine but are united with it). 23 For a more detailed elaboration of these, see (Fusfeld 1981: 94-103). World of Divine Command (‘alam al-amr) latifa : Location Domain Prophet Color qalb left breast Divine actions, Adam Yellow (heart) Divine attributes ruh right breast Affirmative Abraham Red (spirit) attributes Noah sirr left breast Essential Moses White (mystery) attributes khafi rightbreast Negative Jesus Black (arcanum) attributes akhfa’ sternum Divine self Muhammad Green (higher arcanum) World of Creation (‘alam al-khalq) nafs center of forehead egoic self, passions or soul (soul) qalab crown of head the four elements: air, fire, water, earth (physical body) © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 15 Naqshbandis believe that each tariqa or spiritual path has its own unique principle or method for ascent to the transcendent via the lata’if. The Chishti method, for example, is based on the principle of going beyond “I am-ness,” or the sense of a separate self. Accordingly, it emphasizes activities that provoke ecstasy (literally: “out of body”) such as the all-night spiritual concert (sama’) and dancing. The Qadiri technique, on the other hand, seeks to undermine self-structures with rigorous ascetic practices such as fasting and long prayer vigils. Despite the grace inherent in these orders, Naqshbandis believe that such methods are less effective for they entail a struggle with one’s nafs or lower nature, an activity that takes place in the World of Creation. While Sirhindi believed that self-mortification could cleanse the nafs, alone the practice cannot lead the disciple to the World of Divine Command. Naqshbandis eschew such practices, believing theirs is the best and fastest method for self-transcendence. Whereas mystical experience is the end-point of the other orders, the Naqshbandi disciple receives a taste (dhawq) of mystical experience at the outset of apprenticeship. Sirhindi called this indiraj-i nihaya dar bidaya (“inclusion of the end in the beginning”). It is one of the hallmarks of Naqshbandi mysticism. This “taste of the transcendent” occurs through the conjunction of two elements that form the cornerstones of Naqshbandi mystical practice: the shaikh’s projection of divine grace (baraka) and the disciple’s effort to attract it called, “the permanent remembrance of God” or dhikr. It is through the synergy of these two practices that the lata’if are activated. In the Naqshbandi order typically the shaikh first bestows baraka at the time of initiation (bay‘a) by placing his four fingers on the heart and pronouncing the name “Allah” three times. Sirhindi claimed that the significance of the heart in spiritual discipline was affirmed by Baha’ aldin Naqshband (Sirhindi 1984: 104-137). The term “Naqshband” itself signifies the shaikh’s imprinting or fixing (band) the sign (naqsh) “Allah” in Arabic in the disciple’s heart. Symbolically, the heart signifies intentionality, something that is ardently desired or sought after. At the time of initiation the disciple learns to perform dhikr in order to attract and become more sensitive to the shaikh’s baraka. Later, the initiate receives guidance in observance of the Prophetic behavioral norms (sunna) with the aim of subduing or controlling the nafs). Subsequently, the disciple performs progressively more advanced contemplative exercises in order to open each latifa and to strengthen those opened already. The shaikh always begins his work with the heart latifa, and one cannot advance on the spiritual path until it is first opened. As the locus of intentionality and sincerity (ikhlas) on the part of the disciple, the qalb is the first and most important latifa. (For this reason, many Sufis consider sincerity the first step in Sufism.) Thereafter, the shaikh initiates each latifa when he deems the disciple is prepared to undertake the next step. Not all such initiations are in the teacher’s physical presence, however. One Pakistani received akhfa’ initiation after his first initiation. Surprised his teacher had forgotten the first three lata’if, he pointed this out to the Pir. The Pir replied, “Don’t you remember I gave them to you in a dream.” Upon hearing this, the Paki© The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 16 stani recalled the dream and was launched into a state of ecstasy (wajd). Such initiations occur in the aforementioned imaginal realm, the ‘alam al-mithal. While many Sufi manuals adduce the specific qualifications of a true shaikh, none is more important than the possession of baraka, for it provides the catalyst for the disciple’s spiritual transformation. Originally the term baraka appeared in the Qur’an but only in the plural signifying “blessings.” Other terms Sufis use to describe this blessing power are faiz (divine effulgence), and tawajjuh (facing). Although these terms have slightly different meanings, they refer essentially to the spiritual power of shaikhs, as well as khalifas, and their ability to project that power. In addition to its presence in the body, baraka is also found in varying degrees in the tomb sites of saints and holy men.24 Without the shaikh’s baraka the aspirant progresses slowly through self-effort, for such action lies within the created world. For this reason, the dominant value in the Naqshbandi order is tawajjuh, the ability to project baraka. Obtaining baraka is the reason for visiting and residing at the hospice and in other hospices or with khalifas. It accounts largely for the authority and reverence the shaikh commands among his disciples. As important as baraka is to the mystical process, no one, not even the shaikh, lays claim to actually possessing baraka. Rather, baraka emanates from its transcendent source; khalifas and shaikhs merely serve as conduits for its transmission to others. Not all baraka experiences are confined to Muslims (viz., believers) as evidenced by an extraordinary case of baraka-induced awakening in a German male. While in Germany, he chanced to hear a cassette tape of Saifur Rahman reciting poetry. Upon hearing his voice, he fell into a state of ecstasy (jadhba). Determined to meet the divine who had such a profound effect on him, he traveled to the shaikh’s hospice in Pakistan. When the shaikh walked into the mosque and came into the German’s physical presence, the latter again went into ecstasy, tearing so violently at his clothing that he ripped his flesh in the process. He stayed at the hospice for several weeks during which time all the lata’if were opened. Within two weeks, he was invested with the khalifate in the Naqshbandi order and initiated in the other three orders of South Asia: the Suhrawardi, Qadiri and Chisti. The act of forcefully projecting baraka is called tawajjuh. The term tawajjuh comes from wajh or face in Arabic and means “facing” or “confronting.” It was originally used to denote the act of facing the qibla during prayer (Trimingham 1973: 213). The Qur’anic basis of the term is the statement by Abraham, “I have turned my face towards Him who created the heavens and the earth” [6:79]. In the Naqshbandi system, tawajjuh signifies the khalifa’s projection of baraka in order to awaken the 24 In Hinduism the term used to describe this power is shakti. Note here anthropologists’ faulty assumption that only shaikhs project baraka as an affirmation of their authority. Khalifas are also able to project it; indeed, anyone in whom the transformational process has begun can do so. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 17 disciple’s lata’if. Tawajjuh is the principal exercise for awaking dhikr in the disciple’s heart. Not only do Sufi shaikhs perform tawajjuh, but also khalifas and even advanced disciples do. As an aid to tawajjuh, the khalifa may envision his own heart filled with the Muhammadan light via the silsila of Naqshbandi saints, which in turn is directed outward toward the disciple. Others simply focus intensively on the disciple’s heart latifa or whatever latifa the latter is working on. Tawajjuh can take place at any time or place and there is nothing intrinsically formal about the process. Typically, khalifas perform tawajjuh with disciples during all sorts of mundane activities from work to casual conversation, in places public and private. The khalifa may alternate his concentration from one latifa to another in an effort to stimulate them. Usually, the practice occurs without either the khalifa or disciple making reference to what is occurring. Whenever possible, the disciple should focus his gaze on the khalifa’s eyes or face, relax, and eliminate (distracting) thoughts.25 An integral part of activating the lata’if, tawajjuh also cleanses the disciple of impurities in the form of destructive habits or undesirable behavior, that is, actions not in conformity with the shari‘a. The khalifa cannot absorb the disciple’s destructive habits during tawajjuh. However, insofar as baraka is projected outward from khalifa to disciple, it is possible for the disciple to absorb lingering impurities in the khalifa. Notwithstanding the one-way nature of the transference, khalifas sometimes experience symptoms of nausea, intense headaches, or fatigue after tawajjuh. The shaikh, too, is said to suffer from these unpleasant side effects. In fact, some of his chronic health problems are attributed to the negative by-products of tawajjuh. For the novice, tawajjuh is both mentally and physically exhausting, necessitating long periods of rest after an hour’s practice. It also stimulates ravenous levels of hunger. For his/her part, the disciple attracts baraka through the practice of dhikr.26 There are two types of dhikr: dhikr jali (vocal) and dhikr khafi (silent). Naqshbandis perform only silent dhikr, a practice that makes them unique among the orders. They believe the Prophet instructed his companion Abu Bakr in this method while he and the Prophet were secluded in a cave during the migration from Mecca to Medina (Algar 1971: 188). The practice was later regularized by Baha’ al-Din Naqshband, who claimed to have received silent dhikr directly from the disembodied spirit of al- Ghudjuwani. Mujaddidis employ two basic dhikr khafi formulae. The first, dhikr-i ism-i dhat, entails pronouncement of one of the names of God alone, “Allah,” or “Hu,” (He) considered the essence of the divine name. The second, nafi wa ithbat, is a more advanced practice discussed below. 25 In his discussion of Naqshbandi practices, Michel Chodkiewicz fails to mention the active role the disciples take in tawajjuh (Chodkiewicz 1990: 69-82). 26 The term dhikr derives from the Arabic root dhakara, which occurs frequently in the Qur’an, enjoining believers to “remember” God. Among the many Qur’anic verses cited by Sufis to support this practice is: “Remember God with frequent remembrance and glorify Him morning and evening” [33:41]. Although used by early Sufis as a means of avoiding distractions and drawing nearer to God, with the development of the orders in the twelfth century it became an established ritual (Trimingham 1973: 194). © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 18 Dhikr seeks to bring awareness to a white-hot point of concentration. The disciple must sit cross-legged, his hands joined together, the left hand clasping the right wrist. One must not recline against anything or rest on one’s hands.27 One must relax, clear the mind, and open oneself to the shaikh’s faiz. Ideally, dhikr is performed in the physical presence of a shaikh or khalifa emanating faiz. When not in the shaikh’s physical presence, however, one may focus on a mental image of him. Representations of the shaikh in photos or drawings are eschewed.28 The optimum position is to sit directly across and as close as possible to the shaikh. One must gaze at his visage (tasawwur-i shaikh) while silently repeating the divine name “Allah, Allah, Allah,” concentrating on the heart latifa. Alternatively, one may envision the name “Allah” inscribed in Arabic on the heart. As in most other Sufi orders the organized séances of the Naqshbandis are completely separate from the ritual salat. (However, ecstasies produced during dhikr often spill over into ritual prayer with disruptive consequences.) In the hospice, formal dhikr séances are held two or three times every day for one to two hours at a time. The only exception to this is during the month of Ramadan when, because of the rigors of fasting, the schedule is substantially reduced. The shaikh is always present at these sessions. In fact, during the nine months I visited the hospice, he did not miss a single dhikr or prayer ceremony. Apart from formal sessions, dhikr is considered a constant process, and disciples must endeavor to be constantly in dhikr, as the shaikh himself is said to be. The reason for this is that dhikr is an ongoing process designed to overcome the appetitive self (nafs) and activate the lati’if, thereby bringing the disciple closer to God (i.e., one’s essential nature). In keeping with the precepts of their lineage, Naqshbandis foreswear the use of musical instruments or dancing during dhikr, injunctions that distinguishe it from many other orders. The only voluntary movement permitted is a rocking from side to side, or other subtle, rhythmical movement of the body used to attune one to the dhikr’s inner rhythm. Strictly speaking, there is no sama’ or spiritual concert. However, during the Thursday evening dhikr, disciples chant recitations of the Qur’an and hymns of praise to the shaikh. Over a microphone a lead voice intones, “Hu, Hu, Hu!” backed by a chorus of five disciples. Despite the absence of musical instruments the chanting very much simulates a concert. The rhythmic exuberance generated by such activities notwithstanding, they are simply supports to dhikr, as evidenced by the fact that many dhikr séances are completely devoid of them. A formal dhikr al-hadra, or communal séance in the presence of the shaikh follows a customary course.29 After noon prayer (zuhr), he takes his seat facing the congregation with his back to the qibla. With the shaikh at the apex, disciples form an oval extending out from him. The khalifas (i.e., 27 This position is analogous to those used in Hindu Yoga and Zen Buddhism, the difference lying mainly in the position of the hands and their emphasis on a perfectly erect spine. 28 The rejection of such images stems from an Islamic proscription against visual representation of the Prophet. 29 This session occurred on 9 February 1997. Compare this with the somewhat sedate performance in Algar’s account of a dhikr seance in Bosnia (Algar 1971: 168-203) © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 19 those with the most faiz) sit closest to the shaikh. This circular formation does not signify a turning away from the world, as Gilsenan believed in his study of the Hamidi/Shadhili order in Cairo (Gilsenan 1971). Rather, disciples face (tawajjuh) khalifas in order to obtain the full force of their faiz. Marbles are distributed to the advanced disciples and the shaikh as a device to aid in the counting of Naqshbandi prayers, the khatm-i khwajagan.30 The reciter (qari) sits at some remove to the left of the shaikh. He begins his melodious chant of Qur’anic verses as disciples begin the dhikr. For their part, khalifas shift their gaze from one disciple to another, usually those whom they know or are instructed by the shaikh or another khalifa to assist. In a few minutes shouts erupt in the silence: “Ya’llah!” or “Hu! Allah!” Others begin hissing, weeping, or laughing or emitting ecstatic cries (shahadat). As the intensity of the séance builds, some disciples are now on their feet. One is in the corner biting his nails, nervously pacing back and forth, his fist held tight to his mouth as if to suppress some overwhelming inner pain. Another is on all fours. He begins crawling toward the shaikh, moans and rolls sideways over and over until he reaches the perimeter of the circle where he finally subsides. One disciple standing in the middle of the circle picks himself up and drops his body sharply onto the hard floor. He does this repeatedly, seemingly oblivious to the pain. Some disciples have cast off their coats and are now running full bore around the mosque. Despite the apparent pandemonium, many are still seated in their cross-legged position, alert, heads nodding rhythmically. Virtually all the khalifas are seated. Occasionally their arms will fly up abruptly into the air or their torso will jerk suddenly, but apart from this, they are sedate and sober. From time to time, disciples shift position by drawing their feet beneath them to recite the Naqshbandi prayers silently. (Those who are in ecstasy (wajd), of course, are excused from this.) The session continues for an hour at more or less the same pace. It does not necessarily build to a crescendo, nor are all sessions dramatic. The shaikh will signal closure by raising his palms and leading disciples in prayer. If it is not time for the formal prayer, some disciples leave while others stay for an additional hour of practice. Another type of dhikr occurs in the mosque usually on Thursday evenings when many khalifas attend expressly for the benefit of disciples. For this reason, Thursday dhikr is the longest and most intense of the week lasting between two and four hours. Khalifas form a long row at the head of the mosque with the shaikh at its center. The senior most khalifas sit next to him. The optimal position for obtaining faiz is to sit directly facing and as close to a khalifa as possible or about a meter away. Since there are usually more than one hundred disciples in the mosque at this time, the others cluster behind the first row of disciples to get as close as possible to the khalifas. During the session, 30 The khatm or recitation signifies the complete recitation of the Qur’an. The khatm-i khwajagan, or “recitation of the masters” is used by Naqshbandis to designate a partial recitation of those chapters viewed as embodying the essence of the Qur’an. These were not part of early Naqshbandi practice and vary considerably from one order to the next. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 20 the shaikh constantly supervises this session, moving disciples about so that everyone has an opportunity to sit with khalifas. The shaikh always gives priority to those whose heart latifa has not yet been activated. For this reason, he makes certain to seat novices with the most powerful khalifas or himself. The shaikh’s relaxed behavior clearly reflects the informality and ecstasy of this dhikr séance. As several disciples chant over a microphone set on one side of the qibla, he is tapping his foot and snapping his fingers to the rhythm, smiling broadly. It is the shaikh at his most animated. From time to time, he or his khalifas make a showering motion with their arms to dispense baraka in greater abundance. Disciples swoon in response. Once, the shaikh did this while a blind man was seated with his back to him. I was astonished to see him react instantly with a cry that bordered on pain. The practice of suhba is a special feature of the Naqshbandis. Suhba signifies companionship and refers to the benefits the early companions received from being in the Prophet’s company. Suhba is a more informal setting for the practice of dhikr during which the shaikh may be conversing with disciples and visitors. As with formal dhikr, in suhba disciples repeat the name of God while gazing at the shaikh’s face. He may be discussing a particular aspect of the teaching with visitors or disciples, answering questions, or discussing the problems he is having with Islamic radicals. Rarely does the conversation takes the form of idle chatter but always centers around a particular religious problem or topic. Novices are expected to attend all of these sessions in order to hasten the awakening of the lata’if. A major suhba session occurs every Thursday evening. About a dozen disciples gather in the larger room (langar) adjoining his house. They are seated on mats along the perimeter of the room. They sit facing each other but are angled slightly toward the front of the room where the shaikh will sit. If khalifas are present, novices sit across from them. Within a few minutes the shaikh enters and takes his place in his cushioned chair at the head of the room. He is fastidious about the seating, and if someone is facing too far toward the front or is leaning against the wall, he will instruct him to adjust himself accordingly. The atmosphere is relaxed, the shaikh usually conversing with those sitting nearest to him. All the while disciples are in dhikr, silently repeating “Allah, Allah, Allah,” as they gaze at the face of the shaikh. Some disciples may suddenly shout, “Ya ‘llah!”or “Hu!” so violently as to send shock waves through the room. Others may begin rolling on the floor or heaving suddenly. No one pays any attention to these outbursts, and the conversation continues in complete disregard of them. When dinner is served, those in ecstasy quickly recover. Dinner consists of bread, rice, and a little beef. After copious glasses of sweet green tea, Suhba resumes, this time more intensely. Within several minutes, someone begins chanting, “Hu, Allah!” Soon others join in. Those who are responding to the shaikh’s faiz are now on their feet chanting “Hu, Allah! Hu, Allah!” moving toward him and back again in unison like an undulating wave. Others not so inclined continue to sit placidly on the © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 21 floor. The shaikh is smiling now, his head gently inclined to his heart side. From time to time, he jerks strenuously to his left to project his faiz more forcefully. Both sides of his chest, the heart and spirit, are beating so vigorously that it is plainly visible through his tunic. Ninety minutes into the suhba, the shaikh rises unceremoniously to prepare for the night prayer. The intense mental effort required in dhikr at the beginning is temporary. When dhikr al-qalbi becomes activated, it is said to operate automatically with little effort required on the disciple’s part. Disciples say that it is the shaikh who places the dhikr in the heart; the disciple need only open his heart in order for the process to occur. Once activated dhikr manifests as a beating of the heart so pronounced that it appears to be beating on the outside of the body. In the shaikh’s case, both sides of his chest beat alternately, qalb, then ruh and back to qalb. Virtually every disciples and khalifa in whom the dhikr al-qalbi is activated exhibits this distinct sign. Its origin is attributed to Baha’ al-din Naqshband. The name “Naqshband” denotes one who embroiders, and Baha’ al-Din himself is said to have woven the embroidered Bukharan cloaks known as kinkha. But in the spiritual sense, Naqshband signifies the shaikh’s imprinting (band) in the disciple’s heart, the sign (naqsh) of the divine name, “Allah.” In some cases, even non-disciples experience the opening of the heart latifa sometimes from a distance as in the case of a European woman. According to her husband: I came here not knowing anything about Sufism. I knew little about Islam. I was simply looking for a place to pray in the company of others. The day after taking bay‘a, I phoned my wife, who was in Germany, to tell her that I had become a Muslim. Although she was not Muslim and had never met the shaikh, she described how the previous night she had become alarmed when her heart began beating right through her clothing.31 The early stages of the dhikr experience evince the most dramatic somatic reactions. In particular, the opening of the heart latifa is often an abrupt break from normal waking consciousness that completely overwhelms, as indicated by the following account of a European physician: When I first came here I was repulsed by the conditions. They were much worse than they are now. We had no bathrooms and we had to go out into the fields to go to the bathroom. The khanaqah was small in those days, and it was so crowded you couldn’t even sit on the floor. At night we slept shoulder to shoulder on the floor. I awoke in the morning covered with insect bites. I was so repulsed by the conditions—not to mention the food—that I went back to Pakistan resolving never to return. But I came back…six times in all. Each time I felt close to a nervous breakdown from the stress of these conditions. But nothing happened. Everybody seemed to be getting it but me. I began to doubt I would ever get it. Then one day I was sitting 31 This is the same woman who believes her conversion to Islam was presaged in a dream years before. Since she became a disciple, the number and intensity of her dreams and visions have increased. © The author and anpere ISSN 1653-6355. Published 2007-02-21 22 in a small room performing Suhba with a few khalifas and all of a sudden the next thing I knew I was thrown to the floor in wajd (ecstasy). Once you get someone’s else’s tawajjuh all yo
  56. black hawk Says:

    The ‘Dancing’ of the Sufis
    By Shaykh Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ajibah al-Hasani 1
    Released by 1428 H
    Dancing is divided into three categories:
    1. The forbidden.
    2. The permissible.
    3. The recommended.
    1. The forbidden category is the dancing of the common with ladies and youths present. This
    can lead to spoiling and uncontrolled lower natures, and satanic selves and so on. Its purpose is
    to show off and to exhibit a state which is not real. This is also forbidden. This is why certain
    people have said that dancing is forbidden.2
    2. The permissible category of dancing is the dancing done by the right-acting ones and the
    fuqara without ecstasy or finding. They do it as a relaxation to the self and energy for their hearts,
    fulfilling the conditions of time and place and the brothers. No women participate in it, nor
    youths. This is permissible, and it does not call for prohibition, because the causes of forbidding
    dancing are what was mentioned before. The latter case is free of these conditions. If this dancing
    is compared to what the Samiris did when they worshipped the cow, it is seen that their dancing
    was forbidden because theirs was spoiled. Their purpose was to glorify the calf, and to be happy
    with it. This is kufr. If their dancing had been free of that it would not have been forbidden for
    It is confirmed that Ja’far ibn Abu Talib  danced in the presence of the Prophet , when he
    said to him,
    “You resemble me in my creation and my behaviour.” 3
    Excerpted from al-futuhat al-ilahiyya sharh al-mabahith al-asliyya by Sidi Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ajibah
    al-Hasani(died 1224 Hijrah)
    2 Imam Nawawi said: “Dancing is not unlawful, unless it is languid, like the movements of the effeminate.
    And it is permissible to speak and to sing poetry, unless it satirizes someone, is obscene, or alludes to a
    particular woman” (minhaj al-talibin wa `umdat al-muttaqin. Cairo 1338/1920. Reprint. Cairo: Mustafa al-Babi
    al-Halabi, n.d., 152)
    3 `Ali  said: ‘I visited the Prophet with Ja`far (ibn Abi Talib) and Zayd (ibn Haritha). The Prophet said to
    Zayd: “You are my freedman” (anta mawlay), whereupon Zayd began to hop on one leg around the
    Prophet (hajala). The Prophet then said to Ja`far: “You resemble me in my creation and my manners”,
    This was mentioned by Shaykh Sanusi in his musrat al -faqir.
    Ibn Layun at-Tujibi said,
    “As for dancing in the mosque, it is in the sahih muslim collection from A`isha  who said,
    ‘An army came from Ethiopia beating drums on the day of the feast in the
    mosque. The Prophet  invited me and I put my palms on his shoulders and
    watched them play.’”
    Ibn ‘Aynia said that ‘zafaf’ was to dance. So it is confirmed that dancing is permissible. If it was
    forbidden in its essence, it would not have been done in the presence of the Messenger of Allah
    3. The category of dancing which is recommended is the dancing of the Sufis, the people of
    taste and state, whether they are in ecstasy or seeking ecstasy, whether that is in the presence of
    the dhikr, or in sama’. There is no doubt that the cure of the heart of forgetfulness and gathering
    with Allah  is sought by whatever means there are, as long as they are not forbidden with a
    clear and definite declaration of them as forbidden. We have seen the speech of al-Junayd when
    he was asked about sama’.
    Al-Fasi said in his sharh al-hissn from [Shaykh al-Islam] al-Suyuti  that he [al-Suyuti] said:
    “How can one condemn making dhikr while standing, or standing while making dhikr, when
    Allah  says, “. . . those who invoke Allah standing, sitting, and upon their sides” 4.
    And A`isha  said, ‘The Prophet  used to invoke Allah at all of his times.’ 5 And if dancing
    is added to this standing, it may not be condemned, as it is of the joy of spiritual vision and
    ecstasy, and the Hadith exists6 that Ja`far ibn Abi Talib  danced in front of the Prophet 
    when the Prophet  told him, ‘You resemble me in looks and in character,’ dancing from
    the happiness he felt from being thus addressed, and the Prophet did not condemn him for
    doing so, this being a basis for the legal acceptability of the Sufis dancing from the joys of
    the ecstasies they experience.” 7
    whereupon Ja`far began to hop behind Zayd. The Prophet then said to me: “You are part of me and I am
    part of you whereupon I began to hop behind Ja`far.”’ Imam Ahmad related it in his musnad (1:108) and
    Ahmad Muhammad Shakir declared it sound (sahih) in his Riyadh, 1949 edition; it is related also by
    `Uqayli, Abu Nu`aym from Jabir, and Ibn Sa`d in his tabaqat with a sound chain to Muhammad al-Baqir.
    [Shaikh GF Haddad in his recently released Sunna Notes says it is a ‘fair narration from ‘Ali by Imam
    4 Qur’an 3:191
    5 Sahih Muslim, 1.282: 373
    6 In many sources, such as musnad al-imam ahmad, 1.108, with a hasan chain of transmission.
    7 Al-hawi lil fatawi. 2 vols. Cairo 1352/1933–34. Reprint. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-`Ilmiyya, 1403/1983,
    Among these people are great Imams, and one of them was the Shaykh of Islam, ‘Izzuddin
    ibn `Abdul Salam, as is mentioned in the ihya 8. This is also confirmed by the hadith
    reported from A`isha , and the people from Ethiopia who were dancing. The Prophet ,
    said to her, “Would you like to look at the dance of the Ethiopians?” Ibn Zakri mentioned it in
    the commentary of the nasihaj.
    It is reported from previous times, from both the east and the west that the Sufis used to
    gather to remember Allah and that they used to dance. It is not reported that any of the
    worthy scholars denied them. I have seen in Fez, in the Zawiyya of as-Siqilli, a group who
    used to do dhikr and dance from the `asr on the day of jumu`a until the isha, with a lot of
    scholars around. No one denied what they were doing. It has reached me that our Shaykh,
    the Shaykh of the group Sidi at-Tawdi ibn Suda used to be present with them sometimes.
    He did not deny anything to the fuqara, except someone who was a cold imitator or an
    argumentative competitor.
    8 It is authentically reported that al-`Izz ibn `Abdul Salam “attended the sama’ and danced in states of
    ecstasy”. Stated by Ibn al-`Imad, shadharat al-dhahab 5:302; Ibn Shakir al-Kutabi, fawat al-wafayat 1:595; al-
    Yafi`i, mir`at al-jinan 4:154; al-Nabhani, jami` karamat al-awliya 2:71; Abu al-Sa`adat, taj al-ma`arif p. 250.
    Imam Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami also mentions “it is permissible to stand and dance during gatherings of
    remembrance [of Allah] and audition according to a group of great scholars, among them being Shaykh al-
    Islam Ibn `Abdul Salam.” (fatawa hadithiyya, p. 298)

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